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Do you know how many students appeared in 2006 All India Engineering Entrance Examination (AIEEE) in 2006? Well, about 525,000 to be precise, out of which about 45,000 were called for counseling.

What is AIEEE?

AIEEE is a engineering entrance examination and the students willing to make it to the top notch engineering colleges in indianite is an All India Common Entrance Examination for Admission to undergraduate degree Programs in the field of Engineering, Technology, Pharmacy and Architecture in various colleges in India. The Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India had taken a policy decision to conduct an All India Engineering Entrance Examination in 2002 (AIEEE-2002) with a view to minimize the difficulties being experienced by the candidates and their guardians arising due to a large number of entrance examinations being conducted for admission to undergraduate degree programme in the areas referred above. It is normally conducted in the month of May every year.

AIEEETop Rankers are called for counseling for admission to 19 National Institute of Technology (NIT's). All candidates are eligible either for central counseling or state-specific or category-specific counseling on basis of their All India Ranking (AIR). Counseling for SC/ST candidates and SC/ST physically handicapped candidates is done on the first two days of counseling. Then the physically handicapped in the Open (OP) category are counseled. Candidates are ranked on an All India basis and also according to their state. Thus, they have an All India Rank (AIR) and a state rank. A central analysis structure is offered for filling up the accessible seats all over India. For the convenience of candidates, provision for on-line submission of Application Form has also been made.

Who is Eligible to appear for AIEEE?

In 2006, the minimum academic qualification for admission through AIEEE was a pass in the final examination of 10+2 (Class XII), or its equivalent, referred to as the qualifying examination. Those appearing in 10+2 (Class XII) final, or equivalent, examination with results not declared could also appear in counseling. Such candidates were admitted provisionally, subject to the submission of proof of passing in qualifying examination latest by September 15, 2006 at the allotted institution. In case they could not comply with this deadline for providing the proof of passing in the qualifying examination, their admission will stand cancelled.

AIEEE Test Pattern

Students opting for B.Tech are tested in physics, mathematics and chemistry. The test duration is 3 hours with maximum marks 540, with equal weight age of 180 for each of the three subjects. Students opting for B.Arch are tested in mathematics and an aptitude test. Most of the questions are based on fundamentals & their applications. So, the first step is to establish a solid base by mastering the fundamentals. For mastering the fundamentals you have to be focused.

AIEEE Test Preparation

There are many Coaching Institutes in India providing coaching for AIEEE. Brilliant Tutorials, PACE Academy, Career Point, Kota are some of them. There are a few institutes which provide Correspondence Courses also. Online sites offering AIEEE mock test have also been launched recently. AIEEE Test Preparation Question Bank CDs for Practice are also in huge demand.

Source by Anurag Chopra

A medical examination is just like any other test you'd have to take in school, work or life in general. You have to do your research and prepare yourself physically, mentally, and psychologically to guarantee success.

How to Facilitate the Medical Examination for Life Insurance with Flying Colors

Here are several ways to ensure that your medical examination for life insurance will start, proceed, and end smoothly.

After applying for life insurance, review your schedule for the week and try to determine all the possible dates and time that you are available to take your medical examination.

You'll usually receive a call from the paramedical examiner assigned to handle your application within one to three days. If you receive no call during that time, you may contact your insurance agent and inquire about the delay.

When you do receive the call, the paramedical examiner will then inform you about the need to take a medical examination for life insurance, what things or documents you may need to bring to the scheduled examination, and when you can expect to receive the results. He will naturally ask you as well when it's best for you to take the medical examination for life insurance.

Morning is generally considered as the best time to have your medical examination for life insurance. The earlier the better because your paramedical examiner will be able to focus on your test as there tends to be fewer clients in the morning.

In most cases, you will be required to pay a visit to a certain clinic or hospital. You may of course request the person to make a house call if certain circumstances prevent you from leaving your home. If you're not familiar with the hospital or clinic you're supposed to visit, make sure that you ask your examiner for detailed directions.

There is no escaping the medical examination for life insurance so it's a process that's best done as soon as possible.

The day before your scheduled appointment, make a confirmation call to your examiner to ensure that your meeting the next day is still on. Review the list of items you've been required to bring. If you're asked to take a copy of your photo with you and you don't have any extra ones left, take care of this at least two days prior to your scheduled examination. Make sure that you're dressed appropriately and using a suitable background in the photo.

Tips for Passing the Medical Examination for Life Insurance with Flying Colors

If your examiner has informed you earlier on that you'll be required to provide him a urine sample, make sure that you drink a glass of water at least sixty minutes prior to your scheduled examination. This will make it easier for you to give the requested sample and for the quantity desired.

Any product that contains caffeine usually has undesirable effects on a medical examination for life insurance. Coffee, tea, and soda are just some products that contain caffeine and which you're required to abstain from for the time being. The sooner you commence your temporary abstinence the better your chances will be of passing your medical examination for life insurance with flying colors.

Believe it or not but nasal decongestants - although produced for your comfort and safety - may not reflect well on a medical examination for life insurance. If you're taking nasal decongestants prior to your scheduled examination, consider switching to an alternative treatment for the time being.

Foods that are rich in salt, cholesterol, fats, or sugar are to be avoided at all costs until your scheduled examination. Over consumption of salty foods might make it seem you're suffering from kidney problems. Overeating of foods that are rich in cholesterol, fats, or oils may make it seem you're suffering from hypertension or heart problems. And eating too many sweet things might make it seem you're in danger of being diabetic.

Lastly, a medical examination for life insurance may require you to do certain tasks by your own. If there's something you don't understand, don't hesitate to ask for directions because accidentally or unintentionally doing something wrong could compromise the results of your medical examination for life insurance.

Source by Nathalie Fiset

"Mrs. Cynthia! Please stop writing and stand up". This was the fourth time Mr. Douglas, our Public Finance lecturer is stopping Cynthia from writing. It was our final year examination and almost every student was desperate to pass all the examinations because failing one will attract an extra year. And an extra year means paying a fresh tuition fee and accommodation fee.

Also the pain of seeing your classmates graduate while you remain in school cannot be overemphasized. Our lectures, on the other hand are well aware of the students desperation. In other to ensure that no student engage in examination malpractice, Mr. Douglas filled the hall with more than ten supervisors and he also invited enough school securities to arrest culprits.

The first time Mrs. Cynthia was halted, Mr. Douglas searched her desk, her answer booklet and under her seat, but he found no incriminating material. The same thing happened the second and third time.

Therefore, when our lecturer interrupted her the fourth time the entire class became upset. Why must it always be Mrs. Cynthia? After all, everyone knows that she is a well behaved happily married mother of three. Students started making comments like; "Mrs. Cynthia cannot engage in malpractice", "please, let her be", "you are embarrassing her", "look somewhere else"... etc.

But this time Mr. Douglas was more radical. He asked Cynthia to walk out of her seat and come to the front of the hall. Immediately, almost everyone stopped writing and focused on the event. Our lecturer instructed one of the female security personnel to conduct a search on Cynthia. After the exploration, nothing was found. Mr. Douglas seems convinced that Cynthia was cheating. But there was no evidence to back his certainty. He looked at Mrs. Cynthia, shook his head and instructed her to go back to her sit.

Cynthia had not taken up to three to four steps before Mr. Douglas called her back. The entire students in the class stood up in anger, protesting the ill treatment of our classmate. It was glaring that the class had reached its boiling point and it would explode if nothing illegal was found on Mrs. Cynthia this time.

What we all heard was; "give me the baby". Mr. Douglas was asking Mrs. Cynthia to handover her three months old son to him. It was illegal to enter into an examination hall with a baby regardless of the infant's age. Even Evelyn, one of our course mates had to leave her two weeks old son with her mother to sit for this examination.

The examination supervisors had earlier told Mrs. Cynthia that she would not be allowed to enter the examination hall except she kept the baby with her nanny outside. I was even surprised why Mrs. Cynthia would want to take her son with her that day because she had always kept the boy with the nanny outside. But she insisted that the baby must be with her because she was monitoring his temperature due to his ill health. It took the intervention of the Dean of Student's Affairs, who issued an exception permit before Mrs. Cynthia was allowed to enter the hall with her son.

Mrs. Cynthia reluctantly handed her son to Mr. Douglas. He took the child and closely observed his clothing. Mr. Douglas asked Mrs. Cynthia to help him unbutton the baby's shirt to enable him see his inner cloth. She blatantly refused, stating that her son might contract cold. With the assistance of the female school security, Mr. Douglas unbuttoned the lad's shirt. After a quick glance at the baby's inner suit, he pulled off the shirt and raised the three months old baby up to enable everyone see him clearly.

We discovered that the boy's inner wear had series of writings on it. When I took a keen look at the writings, I discovered that they were definitions, features, disadvantages, advantages and explanations of different terms and concepts in Public Finance. Mrs. Cynthia had carefully written some of the answers to the examination questions on her three months old son's cloth and her son was putting it on. And she was busy copying some answers to the exam questions from her son's cloth.

The class became calm. We watched the security personnel as they took Mrs. Cynthia and her baby to the Dean of Student's Affairs officer for further interrogation.

Why Examination Malpractice in Nigeria

Examination malpractice is the act of disobeying the rules and regulations guiding the conduct of an assessment with the intention of manipulating its result to favour the individual. The truth is 65% of students in West Africa intentional engage in examination malpractice, 25% are forced to partake in the illicit act, while, just 10% of the student population refuse to be involved in exam malpractice. The big question now is; what are the causes of the high rate of exam malpractice in West Africa.

Corruption: There is an African proverb that says; 'if the head is rotten, the body will also decompose'. The high rate of corruption in the government of most African states has gradually crawled into the educational sector. Ministers or heads of the education sector are politically appointed based on political patronage and not by merit. This has led to mismanagement and maladministration of the sector. The examination bodies are also suffering from the cankerworm called corruption. Intending examination supervisors must bribe the head of the exam body before a school is assigned to them to superintend. In order to recuperate their investment, they will mandate the entire candidates to pay specific amount of money before their papers will be sign and collected. This payment also covers the cost of permission to use any external source to answer the examination questions. After such payments students can use their textbooks, notebooks, and the internet. They can even bring in mercenaries to solve or answer the examination questions. The few that refuse to comply will be confined to a special examination hall generally called "hell". As the name imply, candidates in this hall will be tormented, intimidated and their time slashed.

Unserious Students: Majority of students in some countries are careless about their studies. They prefer to waste their precious time at the front of television sets, watching their favorite programmes. Others are glued to their handsets and other electronic devices maximizing the temporal fun of various social media groups or playing games. Game and Football match viewing centers are truly reaping the benefits of the slow death of our reading culture. The book section of libraries are usually empty, while the political and sports newspaper section attracts the highest population of the library users. And the students seem not to be worried about their examinations because they can always bribe the supervisors.

Inadequate human and material resources: Some schools in Nigeria do not have a single English language and Mathematics subject teachers. And these two subjects are compulsory. Some secondary schools, mostly in the rural area have less than six teachers. How will the students write external examination when they were taught nothing? The only remedy is to engage in examination malpractice to get the required qualification.

Academic excellence will be a mirage when the learning environment is not conducive. Students will learn nothing when the roofs of their classrooms are leaking and there are no even desks to sit on and study. Students are seen sitting on the floor learning under trees. Many schools have no library, while libraries in other schools are either obsolete or lack relevant reading materials.

Weak Government Policy Implementation: The government agencies responsible for the supervision of schools are all drained. They fail to enforce government policies via constant supervision of schools. This has led to reduction in the quality of human and material resources. In their quest to make more profit, most private schools employ cheap unqualified teachers, which leads to production of unbaked students.

Government officials who are responsible for the supervision of schools abandon their functions for their personal business. Therefore, most private schools are registered without proper investigation. The result is that majority of registered schools in Nigeria are examination malpractice centers.

Others: Some other reasons for examination malpractice in Nigeria are poverty, fear of failure, peer pressure, lack of studying skills, sex abuse, cultism, and drug abuse.

What Are the Means of Examination Malpractice?

Examination malpractice can be accomplished through different ways but I will broadly divide them into three, based on the different actors in the process of accomplishment. They are: Examiners, School and Student malpractice.

Examiner Malpractice: This malpractice is solely coordinated by some corrupt staff of members of the examination bodies or institutions. These individuals collect money from school owners, exam racketeers and students with the aim of leaking the examination questions before time. The buyers of these secret will in turn sell the questions to other schools or students and in no time the examination question will flood the streets of the town.

Another means of examiner malpractice is when examination supervisors sent to different schools connive with the school management or students to engage in this illegal act. The school or students will give the examiner a certain amount of money and they are free to use any external material they can lay hands on. As long as they can afford the prize they can use textbooks, the internet, call mercenaries or even go home with the examination question and submit when they are through.

School Malpractice: This type involves the management and staff of schools. Each student will pay specific amount of money for the entire or specific subjects. The school will hire the subject teacher or a mercenary who will solve or answer the examination question and the answers will be written on the board (or photocopied and distributed to the students to copy) for students to copy. The students are also free to use any incriminating materials that can assist them in passing the examination.

Individual Malpractice: This is the sole responsibility of individual students. The school and the examiners are not aware of this type. Offenders are mostly students that cannot afford the high cost of bribing the school or examiners. They are also found in schools that do not tolerate examination malpractice. Students also embrace this when incorrupt examiners are sent to their schools.

Given that it is not open, the student must do everything possible to ensure he is not caught. Some students usually copy perceived exam answers on tiny pieces of papers and hid them in their pants, shoes, mouth, hair, bra, pockets, etc. Others write the answers on their clothing, body, exam hall walls, ceiling, floor, desk, etc. While others use their electronic devices to store perceived answers.

Solution to Examination Malpractice in Nigeria

The truth is,if the issue of malpractice in schools is not fixed, our school system will not be able to compete favorably with schools in the world. Currently, Nigerian students are fleeing from schools that are upright to the once that condole examination malpractice. The schools with the highest population are mostly exam malpractice kingpins. These are my few suggestions.

Skilled Manpower: The government should not appoint key stakeholders in the academic sector based on political patronage. Best hands should be employed to man the education sector. Ministers and heads of education agencies should be experienced academicians and track record administrators. Also, only qualified teachers should be employed. We know the schools need teachers, but incompetent teachers will compound the problem. And constant training of teachers should be the order of the day to integrate them with the latest global teaching standard.

Poverty Reduction: Most teachers and examiners are very poor. Most of them are engaged in malpractice because they are not well remunerated and cannot provide their basic needs of life. Hence, they embrace examination malpractice as an additional source of income. With the high level of unemployment in the country, people engage in this act to put food on their tables. If the welfare of teachers and examiners improves, most of them will shun malpractice. Also government, organizations and individuals should create more employment opportunities for citizens.

Punishment of offenders: Nobody or only few guilty examination malpractice practitioners have been punished. We have a law that prohibits examination malpractice and those found guilty will bag as much as five-year jail term or N200, 000 fine or both. We know that there are strong cartels that run this multi-million Naira business. Therefore, the government should bring offenders to book by ensuring they face the wroth of the law if found guilty.

Provision of infrastructures: Government, business organizations and well meaning individuals should step-up effort to change the current infrastructural decay in our schools. Most school needs just little maintenance work to become conducive. New well equipped classrooms should be erected. Libraries should be updated.

Active Government Supervision: Government, examination bodies and other Educational Agencies should scrutinize intending school owners before issuing the operational license. Some school owners are into business because they want to engage in malpractice. Therefore, the government should constantly supervise all schools to fish-out the "bad eggs" and such schools should be sanctioned accordingly.

Motivation of Students: Students have already been brainwashed that examination malpractice is the only way to academic success. Therefore, our students need to be re-oriented. They need to know that there are principles of academic success that will lead them to the top of their educational pursuit. The services of skilled practitioners and motivational speakers should be employed to motivate students to embrace hard work and reject examination malpractice. Academic success seminar should be organized and reading should be made interesting.

The Mass Media: We need the assistance of all the channels of mass communication to educate and enlighten the public on the effects of examination malpractice. Parents should be discouraged from financing their children's examination malpractice levy or fees. Also, reading and comprehension techniques should be publicized to enable students acquire skills that empowers them to read and understand.

Source by Anyaehie George Kelechi

To pass the Examination for the Professional Practice of Psychology (EPPP) you need help, a strategy. You can not just walk in to an examination center, sit down, and pass this examination without preparing. 

How Important is the EPPP?

The EPPP is one of the most important tests a psychologist will ever sit for. 

No matter how well you did in your graduate school classes. No matter how great you did on comprehensive examinations. Or how brilliant your dissertation defense was. Or how many journals accepted articles based on your dissertation. You may have been the star at your internship. Your internship director may have held you up as the model intern. Yet, despite it all...

If You Don't Pass the EPPP...

If you fail the Examination for Professional Practice in Psychology you will have very limited practice opportunities in the US or Canada. You will, virtually, be unable to practice anywhere without passing the it. At least not in any state or province that has a board of psychology that is a member of the Association of State and Provincial Psychology Boards (ASPPB). The only exceptions to requiring you to pass this exam being Prince Edward Island and Quebec. Yet even Quebec requires applicants from outside the province to pass the exam before they are allowed to practice.

The list of professional activities that you are restricted from when you are not licensed is long: You can't have private patients. You can't get insurance company reimbursement. You can't print "Licensed Psychologist" on your business cards. Many employers require that you be licensed. Basically, if you can't pass the EPPP you'll have thrown away years of graduate study and thousands of dollars on education, and all the sacrifices you made.

The EPPP Defined

The EPPP is the Examination for Professional Practice in Psychology. Every psychologist who wants to hang out a shingle in any state in the USA or in almost any province in Canada needs to successfully complete it.

Who Makes the EPPP?

An organization in Montgomery, AL creates and markets the EPPP to State and Provincial psychology boards.

Content of the EPPP

The EPPP contains these 8 domains: Ethical, legal, and professional issues, Treatment, intervention, and prevention, Social and multi-cultural bases of behavior, Biological bases of behavior, Assessment and diagnosis, Cognitive-affective bases of behavior, Research methods and statistics, and Growth and life-span development.

EPPP Administration

The EPPP is made up of two hundred twenty-five multiple choice questions. The examinee has four hours and fifteen minutes exactly, to finish the exam.

The exam is administered via computer. The examinee locates and sits for the exam at a Prometric Test Center.

It's natural to assume that having attained a PhD or PsyD in psychology, having passed an accredited graduate program in psychology, completed an internship, and defended a dissertation or research project you would be able to easily pass the exam. Or perhaps pass it with a bit of review. But nothing could be further from the truth.

Why EPPP Questions are Difficult

On the EPPP, examinees must pick the "best" answer, not necessarily the "right" answer. Wording is often inverse. Questions may specify "all are true except" or "all are false except." Discriminating fine differences between the answers on this psychology exam can be very challenging.

The questions on the exam require you to not only be familiar with each of the eight domains, but to demonstrate the application of that knowledge.

It is not realistic to believe that you can prepare minimally for the EPPP, or prepare in the same manner you have in the past for examinations. Nor is it realistic to prepare minimally and simply plan on continually retesting until you pass the test. There are several reasons for this.

EPPP Registration Expenses

One reason that makes it unrealistic to keep retesting is the high cost. Each administration of the EPPP costs you $450. Each sitting at the Prometric Test Center to sit for the psychology exam costs $68.

State and Provincial psychology boards require the payment of licensing and administration fees before you are allowed to take the exam. You must obtain an Authorization to Test letter from your psychology board before the ASPPB will allow you to register for the psychology examination. Psychology board costs related to licensing and sitting for the exam, depending on where you live, can be upwards of a thousand dollars.

How Many Times Can I Take the EPPP?

Another reason it is unrealistic to repeatedly retake the EPPP is that there are limitations on how many times you can take it. The ASPPB restricts you to taking the exam four times annually, while your local psychology board may restrict you even further. After a certain number of unsuccessful attempts on the Examination for the Professional Practice of Psychology many psychology boards require you to convince them why you should be allowed to try to pass the exam again. Before you can take the test again your psychology board may require you to take additional classwork, gain further experience, or undergo supervision (for example).

All of these additional requirements can add significantly to the time it takes you to pass the EPPP.

Financial Costs of Retesting on the EPPP

Retakes of the EPPP are not free. You must pay the full fee to ASPPB ($450) and to Prometric ($68) each time you sit for the exam. Your psychology board will also charge you additional administration fees to reapply for another authorization letter to retake the exam. In all, the process of sitting for and passing this test are quite costly.

How to Pass the EPPP

So, in summary, passing the Examination for Professional Practice in Psychology is a difficult undertaking that requires special preparation. However, help is available. Web sites, such as How To Pass The EPPP Without Even Trying! exist to make the process easier. With careful preparation, an understanding of the structure of the exam, the proper exam study materials, and test taking strategies specific to the EPPP, you can and will pass the test.

Source by Keith Steel

In order to keep his health in tip-top shape, a man must know his whole body. Every little spot, every small ache, every strange change, all must be noticed. This includes anything that might be different about the penal. In fact, regular penal self-examination is a powerful tool in good penis care.

But many men look at their penis and wonder if it is any different. Is it smaller than it used to be? Is it less sensitive? Are the orders not quite as hard? And in fact, are there other differences as well, things that are occurring in the rest of the body that do not make much sense?

A man who wonders all these things might be looking at a problem with low testosterone. Here's what every man should know about how this very important male hormone affects his overall health, not just his penis.

What low testosterone does to the body

Men are already well aware that testosterone fuels the sex drive. Most are also aware that testosterone levels gradually decrease with time, and that is part of the reason that most men see their sex drive diminish a bit with age. But there are other things that can be a red flag for low testosterone that deserve a look.

1. Muscle begins to shrink. Suddenly it becomes harder to get through those reps at the gym, or all that muscle that was earned through so much effort is now looking smaller each and every day. This is because the body moves into a catabolic state (instead of the typical and expected anabolic state), and as a result, it begins breaking down muscle. It can happen in as little as a week.

2. A man puts on a spare tire. That bulge in the middle, right above the belt, where a man hates to see that 'beer gut' forming is right where Low T leaves its mark. Men who have lower levels of testosterone are more likely to develop body fat around the middle, as well as the more troubling visceral fat, which is fat that builds up around the organs.

3. His mood is volatile. Anyone, man or woman, can be significantly affected by a change in hormone levels. For men, the loss of testosterone often causes a blue mood of depression, anxiety, irritability and the like. To make matters worse, depression can trigger the body to produce even less testosterone, leading to a vicious cycle.

4. His memory sucks. Parts of the brain that serve memory and cognition have testosterone receptors in them, which means that the less hormone flowing, the less likely those areas are strengthened. The result is a decline in how much a man can remember, as well as other aspects of mental function. The problem gets worse with time.

5. His heart is in danger. Just as testosterone play a vital role in opening up the blood vessels that lead to the penis, it works the same way in other areas of the body, such as the heart. Those who have Low T for a long time may have a greater probability of heart attacks and other heart problems.

Part of the Penis Self-Examination

When a man is looking at his penis to determine how things are down there, it pays to look at the size and note if it might be a bit smaller than usual. It is also a good idea to think about other aspects as well, such as the strength of erections, how the sex drive has been properly and other factors that play into a fulfilling intimate life.

In addition, a man should do all he can to help ensure the penalization is as healthy as possible. A good option for this is a top-notch penis health crème (health professionals recommend Man 1 Man Oil, which is clinically proven mild and safe for skin) , applied on a regular basis to the penis skin. Look specifically for a crème that is good to the blood vessels - that will include vitamin C for healthy circulation, L-arginine for great blood flow, and vitamin D, which protects cellular function.

Source by John Dugan

The JEE or in other words the Joint Entrance Examination is a very highly competitive examination conducted by the Indian Institutes of Technology for selection into the prestigious B.Tech program of the IITs. Now the future of the IIT -JEE is in question as the government is in favor of creating standardized entrance examinations along the lines of the SAT for all accredited colleges.

In India the high school students take the CBSE/ICSE/STATE BOARD examinations at a senior school level. For selection into colleges they write the JEE/AIEEE and a host of customized examinations. This puts unnecessary stress on the students who seek college education. The proposed reform is to standardize all examinations and make the students undergo only one aptitude test in addition to the high school examinations. A combined score will allocate a student to the respective universities.

The JEE on the other hand is a highly differentiated examination where students with exceptional problem solving skills in high school math, physics and chemistry get selected. Abolishing the JEE will cease to bring to limelight extraordinary student achievements. The IITs have administered their B.Tech courses very well during the last 50 years of their existence. There is little point for the government to put together a plan that will do away with the JEE and bring in students with average skill levels in the sciences and math into the hallowed portals of the IIT.

Multiple examination formats that are persisting in the current system should not be viewed as stress inducers, they need to be viewed as a mechanism where a student gets to write a multitude of examinations based on the choices he or she makes. With the government forcibly cutting short all these examinations by introducing one standard test throughout the country the examinations will provide only for a competitive selection model with limited skills. As history has seen the students who have been successful in mass competition exams such as the CBSE do not succeed in the IIT system. The IIT JEE has been of such standard and quality that replacing it with a mediocre system of the skill levels of the SAT and CBSE is only ridiculing the motives of the IIT.

Instead of viewing the multiple selection examination formats as a burden they should be viewed as available choices. The students themselves can decide on whether they would appear for the CBSE alone or whether they would appear for the JEE and other exams.

Source by Srinivasa Gopal

The best Disability Services companies are able to provide these services to large insurance companies and employers nationally. Disability Services are an important line of business and the Independent Medical Examination (IME) is the most requested services for the disability insurance industry.

An IME is an important part of making decisions in a Disability Insurance Claim case. The purpose of this examination is to get an unbiased and independent medical opinion of the claimant's disability or injury. This opinion is also often used to judge the claimant's employability. Sometimes the claimant is out of work collecting disability insurance benefits and the IME lets the employee and employer know whether the claimant can return to work.

Some case managers or employers often have trouble determining which vendor they should use to schedule their IMEs. The vendor that you choose to schedule your IMEs will have a big effect on your clients and / or claimants. You'll want to find a company who has the right set up and more importantly, they have to have enough experience to get the job done efficiently. Time is a factor for these examinations and you want a vendor who can schedule them fast - and with high-quality doctors - so you can get a determination for your Disability Insurance Claim case.

The most trustworthy Disability Services companies have decades of experience developing and refining their method for overseeing the IME process. They need to be with you and offering their assistance from the time they get the referral to the time a final report from the examiner is sent to their client.

This should not be a one-size-fits-all solution like what many other vendors offer. Your IMEs need to be a personalized service because not everyone who wants to schedule an IME has the same needs. Your Disability Services scheduling company also needs to be an expert in all of the different types of IMEs you may need because different situations may call for a different type of IME.

A good IME scheduling service should have a large provider network with tens of thousands of board Certified physicians and other healthcare specialists. Your Disability Services company needs to staff their office with people who have years of experience dealing with and scheduling IMEs. IMEs are what a good Disability Services company should focus on and they should do them with confidence.

If you are interested in obtaining disability services for your organization you can begin the process by searching for Disability Services companies in search engines. If you have any additional questions it is recommended that you find a company who will make themselves available by phone. Some companies will have a contact form on their home page and a good company should be committed to responding to you via email within 24 hours.

Source by David A Gomez

1. Cross examination: one fact one question.

The only way to keep control of the doctor on cross examination is to ask questions with one fact that calls for a yes or no answer. You are giving a speech in the form of questions. The facts in your questions should stand on their own and not depend on any information the witness has in their head. When deposing the defense doctor, there are plenty of facts to pull from. Here are some sources to pull facts to put in to your leading questions. The defense doctors report, plaintiff's medical records, the doctor's deposition in your case, depositions the doctor has given in other cases, journal articles written by the defense doctor.

2. Summarize the important admissions with leading questions.

Many times a defense doctor will admit a few things in deposition that help your client's case. We should all confirm those facts with leading questions on cross examination. For example in most cases defense doctors will admit that a traumatic event can result in an injury that is appropriate to treat with physician supervised physical therapy or chiropractic care within six weeks of the injury. Confirm the amount of the bills he or she agrees the collision was a substantial factor in causing.

At deposition get the defense doctor to admit that your client experienced pain following the injury and that patients of theirs have complained of pain for varying periods after an event like the one your client went through. Most defense doctors will admit that a certain segment of the population is predisposed to injury and that prior injury can make people more susceptible to greater harm from a later injury. Here are some questions to try at the defense doctor's deposition. These are not cross examination questions for trial.

Q. Would you agree that some people are more fragile than others?

Q. Would you agree that fragile people are often predisposed to greater injury or pain from an injury-producing event?

Q. Do people experience pain differently?

Q. Some people have a greater threshold for pain than others?

Q. Is there a precise way to measure pain?

Doctors understand that a person's body can be "healed" but they can still have pain. A defense doctor may be using the work "healed" to mean that, architecturally, the body has reached maximum medical improvement. Some defense doctors will admit that symptoms, such as pain, last long after the body has "healed." Focus on symptoms rather than injuries or healing.

3. If the defense doctor's file is incomplete...

Often defense doctor's files will be incomplete. They may not have all of the prior medical records and most commonly defense doctors will not look at the radiology images themselves. Typically their review will rely on the written report of the radiologist who interpreted the images. This is a good opportunity to point out where the defense doctor got his information. Walk through with the defense doctor how he got the records of plaintiff. Ask, "All the records you got were provided by the defense attorney, correct doctor? Confirm the defense attorney did not provide the images of plaintiff's spine from her X-ray, MRI or CT scans. Most doctors will admit that it is their general practice to review MRI images themselves before making a decision on whether or not to perform surgery.

Remember this issue applies with equal vigor to the plaintiff's treating doctors and testifying healthcare providers. Beware, treating doctors who are not made aware of important medical records, or information about prior trauma are just as susceptible to this type of cross examination.

4. Some symptoms improved: You believed my client when she said her headaches went away?

Keep an eye out for symptoms or pain the plaintiff has that get better. For example it is common for injured people to have multiple locations of pain early on, some of which resolve, only to be left with one or two chronic conditions that are significantly affecting their lives. If this is the case, you can employ the following cross examination.

Q. Did Ms. Jones's say her headaches went away?

A. Yes.

Q. Did Ms. Jones's say her low back pain went away?

A. Yes.

Q. Did you believe Ms. Jones when she said her headaches went away?

A. I did.

Q. Did you believe Ms. Jones when she said her low back pain went away?

A. I did.

Q. She was honest with you about that.

A. Yes she was.

Q. Did she have any complaints in any other part of her body when you examined her?

A. Well, yes she said her neck was still hurting?

Q. Did you believe her when she said her neck was still hurting?

A. Well No or Yes I did. [Either answer is good here.]

Q. [If they Say no.] You do not state anywhere in your report that you did not believe her, true?

Q. Did you label Ms. Jones as a malinger in your report?

A. No.

5. Show that the defense doctor is more familiar with law firms in town than the names of the people he has testified against in court.

You may be able to make the point on cross-examination that the defense doctor is very familiar with the names of the defense law firms that refer him defense medical exams, but less familiar with all of the individuals he has testified against. At the doctors deposition see how familiar the doctor is with the names of the more prominent firms that send him cases. Ask which firms refer him the most defense medical examinations. If he says he does not remember, provide the names of some firms you know have referred business his way. He will remember some.

Q. Do you know the law firm of Smith, Jones and Johnson?

A. Yes.

Q. Do you know the law firm of Levi & Louis?

A. Yes.

Q. These are law firms who have referred you business?

A. Yes.

Q. Doctor do you know Javier Martinez?

A. No.

Q. Do you know Tom Jones?

A. No.

Q. Do you know James Lee?

A. No.

Q. Do you know Sally Smith?

A. No.

[Make sure you get real names from real people, and have the old reports ready to back it up.]

Q. You know the law firms I asked you about, true?

Q. You don't know the names of any of the people you have testified against in Superior Court?

Q. You don't remember any of them do you?

Q. You don't have any responsibility for these people do you?

Q. You don't care for them as their doctor do you?

Q. You don't treat them?

Q. You don't have to worry about them at all

Q. You just have to produce a report that says they are not hurt?

Q. You just have to produce a report for the law firm that hired you?

6. Doctor do you have any private patient's that you're responsible for?

Many defense doctors still have a few private patients that they see. Here is a line of questions that exposes that absurdity that everyone gets better at the same rate, all within six weeks time, all with a short course of physical therapy and some home exercises.

Q. Dr. Do you have any private patient's that you're responsible for?

A. Yes.

Q. Do some of them get hurt in accidents?

A. Yes.

Q. Do some of them get hurt swinging a golf club?

A. Yes.

Q. Playing tennis?

A. Yes.

Q. Jogging down the street?

A. Yes.

Q. Stepping of a curbing

A. Yes.

Q. Bending over the counter to shave?

A. Yes.

Q. Changing a baby's diaper?

A. Yes.

Q. Any impacts in any of those incidents?

A. No.

Q. Any property damage?

A. No

Q. Do you ask for pictures of golf clubs, or baseball bats, or tennis racquets?

A. No.

Q. Do you have any pictures inside your private patient's charts?

A. No.

Q. Have you ever taken care of anyone who was ever hurt in an auto accident?

A. Yes I have.

Q. Have any of them had neck injuries?

A. Yes some of them.

Q. Have any of them had back injuries?

A. Some of them have.

Q. Do you actually treat them for this?

A. Yes I do.

Q. Some of them get well right away.

A. Yes.

Q. Have you ever heard of the word chronic?

A. Yes.

Q. What does that mean?

A. Well it means something that long lasting and long standing.

Q. Over the years have any of your patients had chronic back problems?

A. I am sure there have been a few of them.

Q. Do any of them have chronic neck problems?

A. Occasionally that will happen.

Q. Well if they say they are still hurting do you still take care of them?

A. Yes.

Q. Do you send some of them out for MRI's, PT, or pain management?

A. Yes.

Q. My client told you the truth. Her headaches got better, her neck got better, and her back is not better?

Q. And she was in an auto accident just like some of your private patients.

A. Yes.

Q. Don't you think doctor that she could have been hurt to in this accident?

A. [There is not a lot he can say.]

7. Doctor do you have pictures of vehicle damage in any of your private patients charts?

Here is a line of questions to point out the absurdity of basing a medical diagnosis on property damage estimates or photographs of car bumpers. Typically you can get these admissions during the deposition of a doctor. Many medical doctors will admit at deposition that there is little correlation between the extent of injury to the amount of damage to a vehicle.

Q. Dr. Did you get a copy of the repair estimate in this case?

A. No.

Q. Did you put a copy of the repair estimate in the plaintiff's file?

A. No.

Q. Have you ever asked any of your own patients for a repair estimate from a body shop?

A. No.

Q. Don't you just ask your patients if they were hurt?

A. Yes.

Q. Don't you listen to their subjective symptoms?

A. Yes.

Q. Aren't their subjective complaints the best tool you have to diagnose their problems?

A. Yes.

Q. Do you have any pictures of a fender or a bumper in any of your private patient's file?

A. No.

Q. Have you ever made a diagnosis of any spinal condition bases on a photograph of a bumper?

A. No.

This is a good rebuttal to the common defense in the low impact case of just use your "common sense". The trial that starts with a big picture of a bumper and the refrain, "use your common sense." We need to turn that around and say, "Yes, use your common sense. Members of the jury, when you want to know why your back hurts do you look at your golf club, or your tennis racquet or your bumper? No, you feel the pain and you tell your doctor."

Jurors don't try to figure out if their back hurts based on a physics formula, they cannot understand. Pose the thought, "Has anyone in this courtroom ever gone up to the black board to figure out their injuries?"

8. Create leading questions with facts lifted from the medical records.

We should take some pointers from defense lawyers from their cross examinations of plaintiffs. The best cross examinations of an injured plaintiff uses leading questions with facts taken from the subjective complaints lifted from the medical records. A similar strategy can be used when cross examining the defense medical doctor. Here is a line of leading questions using facts lifted from medical records.

Q. You reviewed the medical records of Ms. Smith's treating doctor, Dr. Jones?

A. Yes.

Q. You are aware on May 1st Ms. Smith reported to Dr. Jones that her right thumb was numb?

A. Yes.

Q. Again on May 15th she reported that her right thumb was numb?

A. Yes.

Q. And that right thumb numbness was documented by Dr. Jones in her chart on that same day May 15th.

A. Yes.

Q. Again on May 22nd Ms. Smith reported to Dr. Jones that her right thumb was numb?

A. Yes.

Q. And again that symptom of right thumb numbness was documented by Dr. Jones on May 22nd.

A. Yes.

Q. These facts are documented in Ms. Smith's medical records.

A. Yes.

Q. You do not dispute the truth of these facts do you?

A. No.

9. Limit the defense doctor who wants to testify about malingering.

Defense doctors will often testify on matters on which they are simply not qualified to offer testimony. A common one is testimony about malingering or secondary gain. If the physician starts stating that the client is a malingerer, or advancing secondary gain, get them to admit that these are diagnoses under the DSM IV or DSM IV-R. Have a copy of the DSM criteria for malingerer and ask the doctor to tell you what they are. Typically they cannot. Get them to admit that they are not licensed to do psychology, that they are not practicing as psychologists or psychiatrists and they refer their patients to professionals in psychology / psychiatry if they think that they need such treatment. This demonstrates that they are not licensed in that field and, therefore, lack the qualifications to provide testimony on those subjects. Have them admit that they did not preform a psychological examination, psycho-social history and/or did not conduct the battery of psychological tests such as the MMPI or MMCI. This shows that they lack a foundation upon which to provide testimony as to a psychological diagnosis. Remember your deposition is as much about limiting the scope of testimony as it is about knowing what that testimony might be. File a motion in limine to preclude that testimony.


When preparing for your cross examination of the defense doctor keep in mind that each case is unique. Trying to use cookie cutter cross examination techniques many not serve you well. Practice your cross examination on your colleagues and friends. Have them read the DME report and deposition and see how well your leading questions work. Does each question truly stand on its own and call for a yes or no answer? Does each of your leading questions call for facts and not characterizations or opinions? After your preparation is complete, remember the jurors expect the plaintiff to take some hits from the defense doctor during the direct examination. Your job is to not make it worse on cross. Make some points using the powerful tool of the leading question and sit down. Remember the words of Voltaire: "The perfect is the enemy of the good."

Source by Albert Stoll

Anyone who has ever heard about CAT exams knows that they are a big deal for Indian students, but do you know what exactly is this examination testing, and what is the big hoopla all about?

CAT stands for Common Admission Test, and it's a computer based MBA entrance test held in all of India. It is seen as a gateway to the most prestigious IIMs (Indian Institutes of Management) and other B-schools, like the Indian Institute of Management in Ahmedabad or the Faculty of Management Studies in Delhi.

Needless to say, that makes CAT a highly competitive examination. The benefits from graduating with an MBA from those schools are believed to be phenomenal, so each year hundred of thousand ambitious Indian graduates, postgraduates and professionals rush to apply.

CAT is conducted every year during a 21 day testing period in October and November. The results are declared in January.

To be eligible for CAT, a candidate must hold a Bachelor degree, with at least 50% marks or the equivalent, as calculated based on the practice followed by the university from where the candidate has obtained the degree.

The exam itself consists of three sections: Quantitative Aptitude (Arithmetic, Algebra, Geometry, Commercial Mathematics), Data Interpretation and Logical Reasoning, and Verbal Ability (Reading Comprehension, Verbal Logic, Vocabulary and Grammar Correction).

For each section, a candidate reads the questions on a computer terminal and chooses the answers by clicking on the correct option. He will have seventy minutes to answer thirty questions within each section of the test, while the countdown time is displayed on his screen.

Generally speaking, every correct answer will gain him four marks, every wrong answer will result in one negative mark, and the unanswered questions will be left unmarked. For each section, a candidate must secure the minimum marks to qualify for that section, and eventually for the CAT. To earn calls for group discussions and personal interviews by IIMs, candidates must secure both the sectional and overall cut-offs in the test.

A candidate can choose the testing venue during the registration, but cannot choose his workstation. It's not allowed for a candidate to take the test more than once a year. You are allowed to reschedule the exam, but you can't cancel it.

The task of conducting the CAT examination is given to a different IIM each year based on the rotation policy, while the computer based test (CBT) administration has been entrusted to the American test administration company Prometric.

Source by Anita Bern

A candidate in an examination hall is a close cousin of the boxer in the ring. Both are fighting for a prize or, at least, for some commendation. Their goal is to win, and victory brings fame while failure leads to disaster and frustration. Each victory paves the way for a promotion up the ladder, and the higher one climbs, the more exposed to the public glare one gets. A world boxing champion is like a Noble Prize winner among academics; each is at the apex of his career, but the route to the position can be tortuous and rough.

The examination candidate is not a very normal person for the simple reason that he is under severe pressure, although he is alert and his pulse is fast, he is liable to commit elementary errors without knowing it.

Thus, he may repeat or omit one word, miss the spelling of another, or interchange the position of two words. If he reads over, which he hardly ever does, he may see what was originally in his brain rather what is on paper. So, most errors escape him.

More alert than at ordinary times though, his brain maybe; it can play funny tricks in the examination hall. Thus, while struggling with the question, he may suddenly recall an old joke or a long forgotten and obscure incident right there in the examination hall while his pen is dancing furiously on the paper, the candidate may remember beautiful tune as if his mind is saying: "forget this task, enjoy some music". Happily, these do not usually disrupt the exercise at hand: the task goes on while the candidate may smile to himself at the strange recall of the joke or music.

The brain can play a different type of trick. A fact long stored up and remembered a short while before the examination can suddenly evaporate. All attempts to recall it may prove unsuccessful. Usually: till the paper ends. The fact remains elusive only to resurface much later when not needed.

The candidate does not fare better in an oral examination. His problems are heightened by the fact that his fate depends entirely on the examiner's assessment of him rather than what he writes down himself. The facial appearance of the examiner is also a strong factor since a stern, unsmiling examiner can be intimidating.

Yet, an examination candidate need not be frightened. He needs all the calmness he can muster. He should sleep soundly before the exercise trusting that all the preparations he made earlier will not fail him at the hour of need. The fact is that one forgets more when one is tired, especially when one panics unnecessarily.

Source by Mufutau Wasiu