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An ICC Reinforced Concrete Special Inspector is one who observes and reports the construction of residential or commercial buildings are in accordance with the building codes of the jurisdiction and at the same time, the approved specifications and building plans (aka. blueprints). Not just anyone can be part of this building inspection team. The individual must satisfy the requirements for certification mandated by the International Code Council (ICC). The building team found on any commercial or residential project is composed of different individuals (Architect, Engineer, Superintendent, Inspector, etc.) that perform different tasks but with one single objective, which is to uphold the Code of Ethics for the welfare and safety of the entire public. To attain an ICC Reinforced Concrete Certification does not require years of experience, as many believe.

Tips for passing the plan portion of the examination

The plan portion of the exam is not easy. Even if you have a strong knowledge of the code portion, most individuals fail do to a lack of understanding the rules of reading plans. So to increase your chances of passing the plan examination remember the following:

  • First, there are the 'Tools of the Trade' and in plan reading this holds true. Become familiar with the Registered Design Professional product contents, design requirements, orientation, schedules and specific directions that are found in any set of plans.
  • Second, remember one of the duties of a ICC Reinforced Concrete Special Inspector is to verify whether the contractor complies with the approved specifications for the building, needless to say, a candidate must familiarize himself with these items that are found in the plans, especially those that will be used on the structural reinforced concrete.
  • In connection to that, the examination is also an open book 60 question examination so candidates must have good navigational skills with the material such as the Concrete Manual and the Model Program for Special Inspection. To familiarize yourself with these reference requirements you can the ICC candidate bulletin.
  • Thirdly, be completely comfortable with the symbols and abbreviations used on the building plans because this is a very often missed step by individuals that test. And equip yourself with necessary instruments that will help you answer the questions more efficiently such as a sheet magnifying glass and a calculator.

In closing, learning how to budget your time for the given 3 ½ hours is not an easy task. There are 90 questions and the rule of thumb is to allocate 1 ½ hours for the open book code portion and 2 hours for interpreting the plans.

Best of luck on the test!

Source by Rodger Little

These questions can be asked in the examination of SMU MBA MB0032 examination. These are the most probable questions for Operation Research examination. These are the SMU MBA questions that can be asked in the examination of SMU MBA.

Q: 1- When the problem involves the allocations of n different facilities to is different tasks, it is often termed as a _________

a) Assignment problem

b) Routing problem

c) Traveling Salesman problem

d) All of the above

Q: 2- L.P.P where all or some variable are constrained to assume non negative values is called.

a) Integer Programming

b) Branch and Bound Technique

c) Gomory 's technique

d) All of the above

Q: 3- An optimium integer solution will be reached eventually after all the enough new constraints to eliminate all the superior non-integer solutions. The construction of additional constraints called.

a) Linear Programming

b) Branch and Bound

c) Gomory's constraints

d) All of the above.

Q: 4- An LPP are constrained by their upper or lower bounds or by both, constrained optimistic problems is the ____________technique.

a) Branch and bound technique

b) Integer technique

c) None of the above

Q: 5- To determine the optimal solution for an integer programming problem cutting plane algorithm devised by ___________

a) Gomory

b) Branch and bound

c) Both of these

Q: 6- To determine optimal solution for an integer programming problem branch and algorithms developed by ________

a) Gomory

b) Land and Doig

c) Both of these

Q: 7- _______ based on probability concept gives an indication of the copability of a given system.

a) Queuing Theory

b) Queuing Service Facility

c) Finite Queuing Models

d) None of the above

Q: 8- An analysis of the process is made usually with the help of a flow diagram are identifying.

a) Exploration

b) Preliminary

c) Implementation

Q: 9- The Queuing Systems with which we are concerned are denoted by M/M/I and M/M/C where M`s stand for exponential inter arrival and exponential Service time distributions. (T/F)

Q: 10- Measures of System Efficiency

F= T+U (T/F)


These are the OR sample questions of SMU MBA examination for Operation Research MB0032 examination.

Source by Gian Brett

Male revision rhinoplasty surgery is the most difficult and challenging procedure that facial plastic surgeons perform. Perfecting surgery with the three dimensional nose takes years to improve and maybe master. In rhinoplasty surgery, minor rhinoplasty maneuvers that we do today may lead to significant postoperative deformities three years from now. Many of us are taught that aggressive cartilage removal is a procedure of the past. Today's concept is "less is more". Less cartilage excision, cartilage repositioning, camouflage techniques, structural grafting and suturing techniques are being taught in most residencies and fellowships and at our national meetings. When primary rhinoplasties are performed, the need for a future revision rhinoplasty is becoming increasingly common. Generally, revision rhinoplasty in males are more complex than females because males may have higher or unrealistic expectations and often, thick nasal skin, which is more difficult to re-support the nasal tip than in thin nasal skin.

In male primary rhinoplasty surgery, the key to prevention of complications is pre-diagnosis of potential anatomical and functional abnormalities. For example, a patient desires a dorsal hump reduction and you identify short nasal bones, thick skin and a long middle vault. Your thorough evaluation will warn you that this patient is at risk for upper lateral cartilage subluxation from the nasal bones (inverted-V deformity) and internal valve collapse following osteotomies.

For male revision rhinoplasty patients, initially perform a detailed anatomic and functional evaluation of the nose followed by documentation of the postoperative nasal deformities that are present and sites of nasal obstruction. After the problems and potential complications are identified, create a general surgical plan while studying the preoperative photographs and prepare to use everything in your surgical armamentarium since your preoperative plans for revision nasal surgery will usually change during surgery.

Below is my algorithm for a revision rhinoplasty consultation. When the appointment is made, the patient is asked to bring a copy of their medical records and operative reports from their rhinoplasty surgery or surgeries, in addition to photographs of their native nose. Review the notes and photos while the prospective patient is discussing surgery with your patient care coordinator. This will give you a head start on identifying the problems assuming that a problem exists. Next, a detailed history is performed while listening very carefully to the patient's wishes. Does he have realistic expectations? This is by far the most important detail that the astute surgeon needs to attain from the history. What is the patient unhappy with - a pinched tip or polly-beak deformity?

Additionally, listen to the patient and see if negative comments are made or if the patient is seeking litigation against the prior surgeon. If this is the scenario, you may want to think twice prior to performing a revision rhinoplasty on this patient. If the male patient is not happy with the results of his surgery by you, there is a good chance that he will be saying unkind words about you in the subsequent surgeon's office. Does he fit the SIMON profile (Single, Immature, Male, Obsessive, and Narcissistic)? If so, watch out since these patients are very difficult to please and are litiginous. During the initial five minutes of your history, the astute surgeon should know if the patient is a good candidate for revision surgery. Poor patient selection can lead to an unhappy patient and surgeon.

Another important detail is to ascertain if the patient has nasal obstruction. The incidence of postoperative nasal obstruction following a primary rhinoplasty is approximately 10%.1 Determine if the nasal obstruction was present preoperatively. If the obstruction is a result of the surgery, a number of questions need to be answered. Did the patient have reductive rhinoplasty surgery? Have the patient point out where the obstruction is. Is it static or dynamic? Present with normal or deep inspiration? What alleviates and worsens the nasal obstruction? What are the characteristics of the nasal obstruction? Was septal surgery performed? The physical examination ensues.

For the physical exam, I use a detailed nasal analysis worksheet Perform a detailed visual and tactile evaluation of the nose. Use an ungloved finger to palpate the nose. Examine the bony and cartilaginous skeleton, tip and skin-soft tissue envelope characteristics in frontal, oblique, lateral and base views. For the bony dorsum, examine the osteotomies, presence of open roof deformity or rocker deformity, and hump under- or over- resection. If inadequate hump reduction is in question, first examine for a deep radix and/or under-projected, ptotic nasal tip and for microgenia.

Look for middle vault abnormalities such as a narrow middle vault, inverted-V deformity or under-resection of the cartilaginous dorsum (polly-beak deformity). For the tip, examine tip projection, rotation, support, alar and columellar retraction, over-aggressive alar base reduction, and lower lateral crural characteristics such as over-resection, cephalically oriented or bossa formation. Over-resection of the lower lateral cartilage complex in males with a heavy sebaceous skin-soft tissue envelope can cause tip ptosis and subsequent, nasal obstruction. A deviated cartilaginous dorsum and tip can signify a deviated septum. This is only a partial list of anatomical problems that the surgeon needs to identify in nasal analysis.

For male patients with nasal obstruction, observe him performing normal and deep inspiration on frontal and basal views. Often, the diagnosis is easily identifiable as supra-alar, alar and/or rim collapse (slit-like nostrils) during static or dynamic states. External valve collapse (lower lateral cartilage pathology) can be evaluated with the soft end of a cotton swab while plugging the contra-lateral nostril. The cotton swab elevates the area of obstruction whether it's the alar rim, lower lateral crura or supra-alar region. See if the nasal obstruction is alleviated by elevating the nasal tip in patients with ptosis of the nasal tip. Perform the Cottle maneuver (pulling laterally on the cheek) to check for internal valve collapse. Although this test is generally non-specific, internal nasal valve pathology caused by supra-alar pinching or a narrowed angle between the upper lateral cartilage and septum can be diagnosed. On basal view, examine the medial crura feet to identify if they are impinging into the nasal airway.

Following a thorough external nasal evaluation, the endonasal examination ensues. At minimum, perform anterior rhinoscopy with and without topical decongestion. In certain cases, nasal endoscopy and rhinomanometry may be useful. Evaluate the nasal septum for perforations, persistent deviation and for any remaining cartilaginous remnants to be used for grafting. Other causes of nasal obstruction to identify are: hypertrophic inferior turbinates, synechiae between the lateral nasal wall and septum, nasal masses and middle turbinate abnormalities (concha bullosa).

As you are examining the patient, create a mental problem list with solutions followed by documentation on your nasal analysis sheet, such as: 1. external valve collapse secondary to over-resected lower lateral crura with a plan of open rhinoplasty with alar batten grafts using conchal cartilage, 2. internal nasal valve collapse secondary to a narrow middle vault and supra-alar pinching with moderate inspiration with a plan of bilateral spreader grafts and supra-alar batten grafts using conchal cartilage, and 3. bilateral alar retraction with a plan of bilateral conchal composite grafts. If structural grafting is necessary, decide what material may be used. A thorough knowledge of the types of autologous (septal, conchal, costal cartilage, deep temporalis fascia, and calvarium) or alloplastic grafting is needed as well as harvesting techniques.

This is only an initial plan as you are creating your algorithm. Guaranteed, it will change as you get closer to surgery. Computer morphing can be extremely useful if patients are notified that the final image is not a guarantee of results. However, despite proper notification and consent, there have been reports of lawsuits filed by patients for outcomes that are different than what was generated by the computer imager. Computer imaging can give clues to the patient's expectations. Unrealistic expectations can be identified when a conservative image is generated by the surgeon and the patient desires a radical change. Therefore, computer imaging can be a powerful tool in evaluating patients for surgery. I can't count the number of times that I have rejected male patients for primary and revision surgery secondary to them having unrealistic expectations only being identified by the computer morphing. An additional use for the computer image is to use it as a goal in surgery. Bring the preoperative and computer imaging photos to the operating room.

Source by Dr Paul Nassif

Carvin is an American musical instrument and product company with a custom factory located San Diego, CA. This is no typical instrument manufacturer, and they definitely create a few difficulties for the average musician in getting their products. They do not supply to any stores other than their own. Because of this fact, Carvin products can only be purchased new from their online website, or at their own stores which are located only in California.

Everyone in other states is pretty much outta luck as far as being able to walk into a store and play a Carvin guitar goes. If you don't happen to live in California near a store, then you have gotta find other avenues to play one such as finding one used at a music store, borrowing a friend's Carvin, or finding one in a pawn shop somewhere to try out (not likely!) Pawn shop guitars are usually not in the greatest of shape, and I would seriously recommend another method.

So therein lies the difficulty Carvin has created for people. I guess they are content to simply fulfill orders through their own stores mail order, phone, and online sales, instead of making their products available through a dealer network as most other major manufacturers do. That and their lack of mainstream advertising, is probably why many people have never heard of Carvin, but even people who aren't musicians know of Fender.

I am in a position where I use music gear from many different manufacturers constantly. Of course there are ones that standout in my mind as being of a high quality. Music gear from so many manufacturers (such as Fender and Traynor), is built these days with high quality and reliablility. In get what you pay for. Buy cheap, and you get a cheaply made product with less reliability, or you get a product that is a cheaply made version of a company's higher end products. No matter which music gear company it is, usually some of the greatest bargains are in their mid priced lines.

Personally, I have purchased several new and pre-owned Carvin instruments and amplifiers. One thing that was a revelation to me is an instance where I had ordered a Carvin amp, and I called a few days later to check on the order. The Carvin factory employee went and checked, came back to the phone, and said "Sir, that amplifier is scheduled to be MADE tomorrow, and should ship out directly after that."I was just shocked to realize that they were hand assembling my amp right there in California in the good ole' USA just for me. The amp arrived on schedule and sounded great! It was actually better than I had expected, and my expectations were high.

I have purchased Carvin DC200 Koa, DC400T, Bolt, and C850T guitars, along with several amps both tube and solid state.The craftsmanship on the DC400T Flamed guitar I purchased is noteworthy, and similar to what you'd see on other high end instruments of the ilk from manufacturers such as Paul Reed Smith or USA made Jackson neck-through model guitars.. The guitar screams and sings, and sounds as good as it looks.

If you are in the market for any type of guitar related music gear or PA system, you owe it to yourself to examine products from various manufacturers to get a good idea of what's out there. In this author's opinion, new or pre-owned Carvin products deserve to be included. You can find more info, another review about Carvin electric guitars, and information on a great source for purchasing pre-owned Carvin products by clicking here: Carvin Electric Guitars Review

Source by William Charles

Punjab examination commission (PEC) is an autonomous body that is responsible for designing, developing, implementing, maintaining, monitoring, and evaluating elementary education in Pakistan. In addition to doing it, it also prepares both 5th and 8th grade student result cards for all the students who undertake the examination.

History of PEC

PEC was founded on 16th January, 2006 after the approval of the Governor. Before the establishment of the commission, the examinations were organized by the Director Public Instructions (DPI).

DPI is the one who gave model papers to the executive district officers of education who were responsible for developing the question papers according to the pattern of the model papers and further arrange examinations for 5th and 8th grades.

Over the years, the examination developed a number of problems. When investigations were done, it was found that the overall quality of the papers varied greatly. It was also found that the question papers didn't represent the curriculum. Since each district was creating its own papers, it was impossible to compare results among districts.

Due to this, the governor found it necessary to create an autonomous body that was responsible for handling examinations in Pakistan. This was the birth of PEC.

Currently, the commission not only handles 5th and 8th grade examinations. It also arranges training courses on the methodology of the new system of examinations for teachers, examiners and paper developers.

It's also the responsibility of the commission to recommend strategies for capacity building of the teachers and educationists that improve the assessment system of students. The commission has also been given the responsibility of collecting data that is aimed at improving curricula and teaching methodology.

The commission also advises the government on all policy matters that relate to the objectives of the commission.


The commission has a committee that drives it. The committee comprises of:

  • Chairperson
  • Chief executive officer
  • Member provincial assembly
  • Secretary-Finance department
  • Program director-Punjab education sector reforms program
  • Program director-directorate of staff development
  • Managing director
  • Director General
  • Educationist
  • Principal

Examination Results

One of the major things that attracts people to the commission is the examination results. Once the examinations have been done and analyzed, the commission announces the results on the 31st of March every year. PEC distributes gazette of grade 5 and grade 8 results to all education offices all over the country from where you can check the results. The results are also available on the PEC official website. This year's results will be available on 31st march 2015.

Source by Duncan Lancer

Do you know how many students appeared in 2006 All India Engineering Entrance Examination (AIEEE) in 2006? Well, about 525,000 to be precise, out of which about 45,000 were called for counseling.

What is AIEEE?

AIEEE is a engineering entrance examination and the students willing to make it to the top notch engineering colleges in indianite is an All India Common Entrance Examination for Admission to undergraduate degree Programs in the field of Engineering, Technology, Pharmacy and Architecture in various colleges in India. The Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India had taken a policy decision to conduct an All India Engineering Entrance Examination in 2002 (AIEEE-2002) with a view to minimize the difficulties being experienced by the candidates and their guardians arising due to a large number of entrance examinations being conducted for admission to undergraduate degree programme in the areas referred above. It is normally conducted in the month of May every year.

AIEEETop Rankers are called for counseling for admission to 19 National Institute of Technology (NIT's). All candidates are eligible either for central counseling or state-specific or category-specific counseling on basis of their All India Ranking (AIR). Counseling for SC/ST candidates and SC/ST physically handicapped candidates is done on the first two days of counseling. Then the physically handicapped in the Open (OP) category are counseled. Candidates are ranked on an All India basis and also according to their state. Thus, they have an All India Rank (AIR) and a state rank. A central analysis structure is offered for filling up the accessible seats all over India. For the convenience of candidates, provision for on-line submission of Application Form has also been made.

Who is Eligible to appear for AIEEE?

In 2006, the minimum academic qualification for admission through AIEEE was a pass in the final examination of 10+2 (Class XII), or its equivalent, referred to as the qualifying examination. Those appearing in 10+2 (Class XII) final, or equivalent, examination with results not declared could also appear in counseling. Such candidates were admitted provisionally, subject to the submission of proof of passing in qualifying examination latest by September 15, 2006 at the allotted institution. In case they could not comply with this deadline for providing the proof of passing in the qualifying examination, their admission will stand cancelled.

AIEEE Test Pattern

Students opting for B.Tech are tested in physics, mathematics and chemistry. The test duration is 3 hours with maximum marks 540, with equal weight age of 180 for each of the three subjects. Students opting for B.Arch are tested in mathematics and an aptitude test. Most of the questions are based on fundamentals & their applications. So, the first step is to establish a solid base by mastering the fundamentals. For mastering the fundamentals you have to be focused.

AIEEE Test Preparation

There are many Coaching Institutes in India providing coaching for AIEEE. Brilliant Tutorials, PACE Academy, Career Point, Kota are some of them. There are a few institutes which provide Correspondence Courses also. Online sites offering AIEEE mock test have also been launched recently. AIEEE Test Preparation Question Bank CDs for Practice are also in huge demand.

Source by Anurag Chopra

A medical examination is just like any other test you'd have to take in school, work or life in general. You have to do your research and prepare yourself physically, mentally, and psychologically to guarantee success.

How to Facilitate the Medical Examination for Life Insurance with Flying Colors

Here are several ways to ensure that your medical examination for life insurance will start, proceed, and end smoothly.

After applying for life insurance, review your schedule for the week and try to determine all the possible dates and time that you are available to take your medical examination.

You'll usually receive a call from the paramedical examiner assigned to handle your application within one to three days. If you receive no call during that time, you may contact your insurance agent and inquire about the delay.

When you do receive the call, the paramedical examiner will then inform you about the need to take a medical examination for life insurance, what things or documents you may need to bring to the scheduled examination, and when you can expect to receive the results. He will naturally ask you as well when it's best for you to take the medical examination for life insurance.

Morning is generally considered as the best time to have your medical examination for life insurance. The earlier the better because your paramedical examiner will be able to focus on your test as there tends to be fewer clients in the morning.

In most cases, you will be required to pay a visit to a certain clinic or hospital. You may of course request the person to make a house call if certain circumstances prevent you from leaving your home. If you're not familiar with the hospital or clinic you're supposed to visit, make sure that you ask your examiner for detailed directions.

There is no escaping the medical examination for life insurance so it's a process that's best done as soon as possible.

The day before your scheduled appointment, make a confirmation call to your examiner to ensure that your meeting the next day is still on. Review the list of items you've been required to bring. If you're asked to take a copy of your photo with you and you don't have any extra ones left, take care of this at least two days prior to your scheduled examination. Make sure that you're dressed appropriately and using a suitable background in the photo.

Tips for Passing the Medical Examination for Life Insurance with Flying Colors

If your examiner has informed you earlier on that you'll be required to provide him a urine sample, make sure that you drink a glass of water at least sixty minutes prior to your scheduled examination. This will make it easier for you to give the requested sample and for the quantity desired.

Any product that contains caffeine usually has undesirable effects on a medical examination for life insurance. Coffee, tea, and soda are just some products that contain caffeine and which you're required to abstain from for the time being. The sooner you commence your temporary abstinence the better your chances will be of passing your medical examination for life insurance with flying colors.

Believe it or not but nasal decongestants - although produced for your comfort and safety - may not reflect well on a medical examination for life insurance. If you're taking nasal decongestants prior to your scheduled examination, consider switching to an alternative treatment for the time being.

Foods that are rich in salt, cholesterol, fats, or sugar are to be avoided at all costs until your scheduled examination. Over consumption of salty foods might make it seem you're suffering from kidney problems. Overeating of foods that are rich in cholesterol, fats, or oils may make it seem you're suffering from hypertension or heart problems. And eating too many sweet things might make it seem you're in danger of being diabetic.

Lastly, a medical examination for life insurance may require you to do certain tasks by your own. If there's something you don't understand, don't hesitate to ask for directions because accidentally or unintentionally doing something wrong could compromise the results of your medical examination for life insurance.

Source by Nathalie Fiset

"Mrs. Cynthia! Please stop writing and stand up". This was the fourth time Mr. Douglas, our Public Finance lecturer is stopping Cynthia from writing. It was our final year examination and almost every student was desperate to pass all the examinations because failing one will attract an extra year. And an extra year means paying a fresh tuition fee and accommodation fee.

Also the pain of seeing your classmates graduate while you remain in school cannot be overemphasized. Our lectures, on the other hand are well aware of the students desperation. In other to ensure that no student engage in examination malpractice, Mr. Douglas filled the hall with more than ten supervisors and he also invited enough school securities to arrest culprits.

The first time Mrs. Cynthia was halted, Mr. Douglas searched her desk, her answer booklet and under her seat, but he found no incriminating material. The same thing happened the second and third time.

Therefore, when our lecturer interrupted her the fourth time the entire class became upset. Why must it always be Mrs. Cynthia? After all, everyone knows that she is a well behaved happily married mother of three. Students started making comments like; "Mrs. Cynthia cannot engage in malpractice", "please, let her be", "you are embarrassing her", "look somewhere else"... etc.

But this time Mr. Douglas was more radical. He asked Cynthia to walk out of her seat and come to the front of the hall. Immediately, almost everyone stopped writing and focused on the event. Our lecturer instructed one of the female security personnel to conduct a search on Cynthia. After the exploration, nothing was found. Mr. Douglas seems convinced that Cynthia was cheating. But there was no evidence to back his certainty. He looked at Mrs. Cynthia, shook his head and instructed her to go back to her sit.

Cynthia had not taken up to three to four steps before Mr. Douglas called her back. The entire students in the class stood up in anger, protesting the ill treatment of our classmate. It was glaring that the class had reached its boiling point and it would explode if nothing illegal was found on Mrs. Cynthia this time.

What we all heard was; "give me the baby". Mr. Douglas was asking Mrs. Cynthia to handover her three months old son to him. It was illegal to enter into an examination hall with a baby regardless of the infant's age. Even Evelyn, one of our course mates had to leave her two weeks old son with her mother to sit for this examination.

The examination supervisors had earlier told Mrs. Cynthia that she would not be allowed to enter the examination hall except she kept the baby with her nanny outside. I was even surprised why Mrs. Cynthia would want to take her son with her that day because she had always kept the boy with the nanny outside. But she insisted that the baby must be with her because she was monitoring his temperature due to his ill health. It took the intervention of the Dean of Student's Affairs, who issued an exception permit before Mrs. Cynthia was allowed to enter the hall with her son.

Mrs. Cynthia reluctantly handed her son to Mr. Douglas. He took the child and closely observed his clothing. Mr. Douglas asked Mrs. Cynthia to help him unbutton the baby's shirt to enable him see his inner cloth. She blatantly refused, stating that her son might contract cold. With the assistance of the female school security, Mr. Douglas unbuttoned the lad's shirt. After a quick glance at the baby's inner suit, he pulled off the shirt and raised the three months old baby up to enable everyone see him clearly.

We discovered that the boy's inner wear had series of writings on it. When I took a keen look at the writings, I discovered that they were definitions, features, disadvantages, advantages and explanations of different terms and concepts in Public Finance. Mrs. Cynthia had carefully written some of the answers to the examination questions on her three months old son's cloth and her son was putting it on. And she was busy copying some answers to the exam questions from her son's cloth.

The class became calm. We watched the security personnel as they took Mrs. Cynthia and her baby to the Dean of Student's Affairs officer for further interrogation.

Why Examination Malpractice in Nigeria

Examination malpractice is the act of disobeying the rules and regulations guiding the conduct of an assessment with the intention of manipulating its result to favour the individual. The truth is 65% of students in West Africa intentional engage in examination malpractice, 25% are forced to partake in the illicit act, while, just 10% of the student population refuse to be involved in exam malpractice. The big question now is; what are the causes of the high rate of exam malpractice in West Africa.

Corruption: There is an African proverb that says; 'if the head is rotten, the body will also decompose'. The high rate of corruption in the government of most African states has gradually crawled into the educational sector. Ministers or heads of the education sector are politically appointed based on political patronage and not by merit. This has led to mismanagement and maladministration of the sector. The examination bodies are also suffering from the cankerworm called corruption. Intending examination supervisors must bribe the head of the exam body before a school is assigned to them to superintend. In order to recuperate their investment, they will mandate the entire candidates to pay specific amount of money before their papers will be sign and collected. This payment also covers the cost of permission to use any external source to answer the examination questions. After such payments students can use their textbooks, notebooks, and the internet. They can even bring in mercenaries to solve or answer the examination questions. The few that refuse to comply will be confined to a special examination hall generally called "hell". As the name imply, candidates in this hall will be tormented, intimidated and their time slashed.

Unserious Students: Majority of students in some countries are careless about their studies. They prefer to waste their precious time at the front of television sets, watching their favorite programmes. Others are glued to their handsets and other electronic devices maximizing the temporal fun of various social media groups or playing games. Game and Football match viewing centers are truly reaping the benefits of the slow death of our reading culture. The book section of libraries are usually empty, while the political and sports newspaper section attracts the highest population of the library users. And the students seem not to be worried about their examinations because they can always bribe the supervisors.

Inadequate human and material resources: Some schools in Nigeria do not have a single English language and Mathematics subject teachers. And these two subjects are compulsory. Some secondary schools, mostly in the rural area have less than six teachers. How will the students write external examination when they were taught nothing? The only remedy is to engage in examination malpractice to get the required qualification.

Academic excellence will be a mirage when the learning environment is not conducive. Students will learn nothing when the roofs of their classrooms are leaking and there are no even desks to sit on and study. Students are seen sitting on the floor learning under trees. Many schools have no library, while libraries in other schools are either obsolete or lack relevant reading materials.

Weak Government Policy Implementation: The government agencies responsible for the supervision of schools are all drained. They fail to enforce government policies via constant supervision of schools. This has led to reduction in the quality of human and material resources. In their quest to make more profit, most private schools employ cheap unqualified teachers, which leads to production of unbaked students.

Government officials who are responsible for the supervision of schools abandon their functions for their personal business. Therefore, most private schools are registered without proper investigation. The result is that majority of registered schools in Nigeria are examination malpractice centers.

Others: Some other reasons for examination malpractice in Nigeria are poverty, fear of failure, peer pressure, lack of studying skills, sex abuse, cultism, and drug abuse.

What Are the Means of Examination Malpractice?

Examination malpractice can be accomplished through different ways but I will broadly divide them into three, based on the different actors in the process of accomplishment. They are: Examiners, School and Student malpractice.

Examiner Malpractice: This malpractice is solely coordinated by some corrupt staff of members of the examination bodies or institutions. These individuals collect money from school owners, exam racketeers and students with the aim of leaking the examination questions before time. The buyers of these secret will in turn sell the questions to other schools or students and in no time the examination question will flood the streets of the town.

Another means of examiner malpractice is when examination supervisors sent to different schools connive with the school management or students to engage in this illegal act. The school or students will give the examiner a certain amount of money and they are free to use any external material they can lay hands on. As long as they can afford the prize they can use textbooks, the internet, call mercenaries or even go home with the examination question and submit when they are through.

School Malpractice: This type involves the management and staff of schools. Each student will pay specific amount of money for the entire or specific subjects. The school will hire the subject teacher or a mercenary who will solve or answer the examination question and the answers will be written on the board (or photocopied and distributed to the students to copy) for students to copy. The students are also free to use any incriminating materials that can assist them in passing the examination.

Individual Malpractice: This is the sole responsibility of individual students. The school and the examiners are not aware of this type. Offenders are mostly students that cannot afford the high cost of bribing the school or examiners. They are also found in schools that do not tolerate examination malpractice. Students also embrace this when incorrupt examiners are sent to their schools.

Given that it is not open, the student must do everything possible to ensure he is not caught. Some students usually copy perceived exam answers on tiny pieces of papers and hid them in their pants, shoes, mouth, hair, bra, pockets, etc. Others write the answers on their clothing, body, exam hall walls, ceiling, floor, desk, etc. While others use their electronic devices to store perceived answers.

Solution to Examination Malpractice in Nigeria

The truth is,if the issue of malpractice in schools is not fixed, our school system will not be able to compete favorably with schools in the world. Currently, Nigerian students are fleeing from schools that are upright to the once that condole examination malpractice. The schools with the highest population are mostly exam malpractice kingpins. These are my few suggestions.

Skilled Manpower: The government should not appoint key stakeholders in the academic sector based on political patronage. Best hands should be employed to man the education sector. Ministers and heads of education agencies should be experienced academicians and track record administrators. Also, only qualified teachers should be employed. We know the schools need teachers, but incompetent teachers will compound the problem. And constant training of teachers should be the order of the day to integrate them with the latest global teaching standard.

Poverty Reduction: Most teachers and examiners are very poor. Most of them are engaged in malpractice because they are not well remunerated and cannot provide their basic needs of life. Hence, they embrace examination malpractice as an additional source of income. With the high level of unemployment in the country, people engage in this act to put food on their tables. If the welfare of teachers and examiners improves, most of them will shun malpractice. Also government, organizations and individuals should create more employment opportunities for citizens.

Punishment of offenders: Nobody or only few guilty examination malpractice practitioners have been punished. We have a law that prohibits examination malpractice and those found guilty will bag as much as five-year jail term or N200, 000 fine or both. We know that there are strong cartels that run this multi-million Naira business. Therefore, the government should bring offenders to book by ensuring they face the wroth of the law if found guilty.

Provision of infrastructures: Government, business organizations and well meaning individuals should step-up effort to change the current infrastructural decay in our schools. Most school needs just little maintenance work to become conducive. New well equipped classrooms should be erected. Libraries should be updated.

Active Government Supervision: Government, examination bodies and other Educational Agencies should scrutinize intending school owners before issuing the operational license. Some school owners are into business because they want to engage in malpractice. Therefore, the government should constantly supervise all schools to fish-out the "bad eggs" and such schools should be sanctioned accordingly.

Motivation of Students: Students have already been brainwashed that examination malpractice is the only way to academic success. Therefore, our students need to be re-oriented. They need to know that there are principles of academic success that will lead them to the top of their educational pursuit. The services of skilled practitioners and motivational speakers should be employed to motivate students to embrace hard work and reject examination malpractice. Academic success seminar should be organized and reading should be made interesting.

The Mass Media: We need the assistance of all the channels of mass communication to educate and enlighten the public on the effects of examination malpractice. Parents should be discouraged from financing their children's examination malpractice levy or fees. Also, reading and comprehension techniques should be publicized to enable students acquire skills that empowers them to read and understand.

Source by Anyaehie George Kelechi

To pass the Examination for the Professional Practice of Psychology (EPPP) you need help, a strategy. You can not just walk in to an examination center, sit down, and pass this examination without preparing. 

How Important is the EPPP?

The EPPP is one of the most important tests a psychologist will ever sit for. 

No matter how well you did in your graduate school classes. No matter how great you did on comprehensive examinations. Or how brilliant your dissertation defense was. Or how many journals accepted articles based on your dissertation. You may have been the star at your internship. Your internship director may have held you up as the model intern. Yet, despite it all...

If You Don't Pass the EPPP...

If you fail the Examination for Professional Practice in Psychology you will have very limited practice opportunities in the US or Canada. You will, virtually, be unable to practice anywhere without passing the it. At least not in any state or province that has a board of psychology that is a member of the Association of State and Provincial Psychology Boards (ASPPB). The only exceptions to requiring you to pass this exam being Prince Edward Island and Quebec. Yet even Quebec requires applicants from outside the province to pass the exam before they are allowed to practice.

The list of professional activities that you are restricted from when you are not licensed is long: You can't have private patients. You can't get insurance company reimbursement. You can't print "Licensed Psychologist" on your business cards. Many employers require that you be licensed. Basically, if you can't pass the EPPP you'll have thrown away years of graduate study and thousands of dollars on education, and all the sacrifices you made.

The EPPP Defined

The EPPP is the Examination for Professional Practice in Psychology. Every psychologist who wants to hang out a shingle in any state in the USA or in almost any province in Canada needs to successfully complete it.

Who Makes the EPPP?

An organization in Montgomery, AL creates and markets the EPPP to State and Provincial psychology boards.

Content of the EPPP

The EPPP contains these 8 domains: Ethical, legal, and professional issues, Treatment, intervention, and prevention, Social and multi-cultural bases of behavior, Biological bases of behavior, Assessment and diagnosis, Cognitive-affective bases of behavior, Research methods and statistics, and Growth and life-span development.

EPPP Administration

The EPPP is made up of two hundred twenty-five multiple choice questions. The examinee has four hours and fifteen minutes exactly, to finish the exam.

The exam is administered via computer. The examinee locates and sits for the exam at a Prometric Test Center.

It's natural to assume that having attained a PhD or PsyD in psychology, having passed an accredited graduate program in psychology, completed an internship, and defended a dissertation or research project you would be able to easily pass the exam. Or perhaps pass it with a bit of review. But nothing could be further from the truth.

Why EPPP Questions are Difficult

On the EPPP, examinees must pick the "best" answer, not necessarily the "right" answer. Wording is often inverse. Questions may specify "all are true except" or "all are false except." Discriminating fine differences between the answers on this psychology exam can be very challenging.

The questions on the exam require you to not only be familiar with each of the eight domains, but to demonstrate the application of that knowledge.

It is not realistic to believe that you can prepare minimally for the EPPP, or prepare in the same manner you have in the past for examinations. Nor is it realistic to prepare minimally and simply plan on continually retesting until you pass the test. There are several reasons for this.

EPPP Registration Expenses

One reason that makes it unrealistic to keep retesting is the high cost. Each administration of the EPPP costs you $450. Each sitting at the Prometric Test Center to sit for the psychology exam costs $68.

State and Provincial psychology boards require the payment of licensing and administration fees before you are allowed to take the exam. You must obtain an Authorization to Test letter from your psychology board before the ASPPB will allow you to register for the psychology examination. Psychology board costs related to licensing and sitting for the exam, depending on where you live, can be upwards of a thousand dollars.

How Many Times Can I Take the EPPP?

Another reason it is unrealistic to repeatedly retake the EPPP is that there are limitations on how many times you can take it. The ASPPB restricts you to taking the exam four times annually, while your local psychology board may restrict you even further. After a certain number of unsuccessful attempts on the Examination for the Professional Practice of Psychology many psychology boards require you to convince them why you should be allowed to try to pass the exam again. Before you can take the test again your psychology board may require you to take additional classwork, gain further experience, or undergo supervision (for example).

All of these additional requirements can add significantly to the time it takes you to pass the EPPP.

Financial Costs of Retesting on the EPPP

Retakes of the EPPP are not free. You must pay the full fee to ASPPB ($450) and to Prometric ($68) each time you sit for the exam. Your psychology board will also charge you additional administration fees to reapply for another authorization letter to retake the exam. In all, the process of sitting for and passing this test are quite costly.

How to Pass the EPPP

So, in summary, passing the Examination for Professional Practice in Psychology is a difficult undertaking that requires special preparation. However, help is available. Web sites, such as How To Pass The EPPP Without Even Trying! exist to make the process easier. With careful preparation, an understanding of the structure of the exam, the proper exam study materials, and test taking strategies specific to the EPPP, you can and will pass the test.

Source by Keith Steel

In order to keep his health in tip-top shape, a man must know his whole body. Every little spot, every small ache, every strange change, all must be noticed. This includes anything that might be different about the penal. In fact, regular penal self-examination is a powerful tool in good penis care.

But many men look at their penis and wonder if it is any different. Is it smaller than it used to be? Is it less sensitive? Are the orders not quite as hard? And in fact, are there other differences as well, things that are occurring in the rest of the body that do not make much sense?

A man who wonders all these things might be looking at a problem with low testosterone. Here's what every man should know about how this very important male hormone affects his overall health, not just his penis.

What low testosterone does to the body

Men are already well aware that testosterone fuels the sex drive. Most are also aware that testosterone levels gradually decrease with time, and that is part of the reason that most men see their sex drive diminish a bit with age. But there are other things that can be a red flag for low testosterone that deserve a look.

1. Muscle begins to shrink. Suddenly it becomes harder to get through those reps at the gym, or all that muscle that was earned through so much effort is now looking smaller each and every day. This is because the body moves into a catabolic state (instead of the typical and expected anabolic state), and as a result, it begins breaking down muscle. It can happen in as little as a week.

2. A man puts on a spare tire. That bulge in the middle, right above the belt, where a man hates to see that 'beer gut' forming is right where Low T leaves its mark. Men who have lower levels of testosterone are more likely to develop body fat around the middle, as well as the more troubling visceral fat, which is fat that builds up around the organs.

3. His mood is volatile. Anyone, man or woman, can be significantly affected by a change in hormone levels. For men, the loss of testosterone often causes a blue mood of depression, anxiety, irritability and the like. To make matters worse, depression can trigger the body to produce even less testosterone, leading to a vicious cycle.

4. His memory sucks. Parts of the brain that serve memory and cognition have testosterone receptors in them, which means that the less hormone flowing, the less likely those areas are strengthened. The result is a decline in how much a man can remember, as well as other aspects of mental function. The problem gets worse with time.

5. His heart is in danger. Just as testosterone play a vital role in opening up the blood vessels that lead to the penis, it works the same way in other areas of the body, such as the heart. Those who have Low T for a long time may have a greater probability of heart attacks and other heart problems.

Part of the Penis Self-Examination

When a man is looking at his penis to determine how things are down there, it pays to look at the size and note if it might be a bit smaller than usual. It is also a good idea to think about other aspects as well, such as the strength of erections, how the sex drive has been properly and other factors that play into a fulfilling intimate life.

In addition, a man should do all he can to help ensure the penalization is as healthy as possible. A good option for this is a top-notch penis health crème (health professionals recommend Man 1 Man Oil, which is clinically proven mild and safe for skin) , applied on a regular basis to the penis skin. Look specifically for a crème that is good to the blood vessels - that will include vitamin C for healthy circulation, L-arginine for great blood flow, and vitamin D, which protects cellular function.

Source by John Dugan