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Internal assessment versus external assessment

The external examination or external assessment serves the purpose of providing information about students, information that may be used by teachers and others to find the suitability of students for a subsequent course of higher education or job in an establishment. So teachers are also too impressed with the suitability of exam results. They are tempted to distort teaching in order to obtain satisfying results in the examinations without caring whether students have gained knowledge or not.. Experts feel that in universities there is no system of education but system of examination. University examinations whether at the end of the year or at the end of the semester asses the abilities to recall the facts, recall of principles, use of numerical data, construction of hypotheses, assessment of hypotheses, design of experiments. But they do not measure the students' abilities to the use of single technique they have studied.

Students appearing for entrance tests for higher education are tested for their comprehensive ability. Students studying for end exams or external exams cannot get through in these entrance tests.

Some of the possible outcomes of learning should be knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, evaluation, drawing and sketching skills, ability to handle instruments, communication skills (skills in writing, talking), social skills (team work and leadership), personal interest (regularity, hard work, inventiveness, originality, initiative), positive and scientific attitude, appreciation and creativity.

These qualities cannot be attained by the end examinations or external examinations. So there is a need for continuous internal assessment. Assessment is taken to mean the terminal decision and grading, while evaluation is a constant probing for the best way to move forward.

Basic principles

Internal assessment is a continuous, periodic and internal process. This means that assessment is done in relation to certain abilities and skills in certain subject areas periodically and continuously. This has to be planned at the time of curriculum development, syllabus interpretation and clarifying objectives of learning. This is known as internal, because evaluation is done by teacher in the institute and no external agency comes in. It does not necessarily replace end examination. The end examination is to be taken as part of the internal assessment. Also it does not mean only a few mid term examinations in place of final examinations and demands that the outcomes of learning a particular subject must be spelt out perfectly. Internal assessment should test those skills and abilities which cannot be tested through a written examination at the end of course.

Proper importance should be given to internal assessment and end examinations. Internal assessment and external end university examinations marks or grades must be shown separately in mark sheets. Teachers should do internal assessment of students, by taking into account all aspects of students' work such as assignments, tutorials, practical, seminar contributions, project works, as well as periodical tests of achievement.

Students may be tested by questions like short quizzes, objective type questions, short answer essay type, long answer essay type, structured essay type, problem solving type, performance type and assignments, tutorials, projects.

The success of a system of internal assessment will largely depend on teachers; their understanding, training, potential, honesty, unbiased attitude and above all the "professionalism" they bring to their work of teaching-learning-testing.



Source by Asokan Thiyagarajan

What is a Chaperone for General Practitioners?

A chaperone in medical practice, is defined as an appropriately-trained independent person who is responsible for observing the examinations and procedures performed by the doctor or medical professional. Their main job is to assist in strengthening the relationship between the doctor and the patient and enhancing the standards of conventional medical practice.

Need for Chaperones in Medical Profession

Medical examinations are becoming increasingly challenging for the doctors and the patients. The main reasons for this are the detailed doctor-patient discussions, accompanied by increasing the autonomy of the patient and their right to making decisions independently for medical and surgical treatment. This is noticeably affecting the traditional doctor-patient relationship that we know of.

These reasons have made maintaining a transparent and open relationship between the doctor and their patients and is increasingly difficult. The boundaries that govern an ideal and healthy doctor-patient relationships are becoming blurred and making consultation is more challenging for the doctors.
A chaperone works excellently to make the doctor-patient relationship stronger and more trustful. However, reports show a surprising lack of awareness among the medical community.

According to a survey published by BMJ (2015), shows that:
• Around 37% of general practitioners admitted to having a chaperone policy.
• While 68% of male general practitioners offered a chaperone when performing an intimate physical examination, only 5% of female general practitioners admitted to it.
• Only 54% of male and around 2% of female general practitioners admitted to having a chaperone when performing examinations.
• Over 70% of female and 8% of male general practitioners admitted they never use a chaperone when conducting an intimate examination of patients.

When the general practitioners did use a chaperone, the sources were varied, such as:
• 22% of interviewed general practitioners used general practice registrars or students as chaperones.
• 47% used a family member or a person accompanying the patient as chaperones.
• 43% of general practitioners used non-clinical practice staff as chaperones.
• 78% of general practitioners usually used qualified female nurses as chaperones.

The main reasons that the general practitioners cave for not using a licensed and qualified professional medical chaperone for chaperoning in general practice are:
• Availability
• Confidentiality
• Time constraints
• Doctor-Patient relationship

Importance of Chaperoning in General Medical Practice

The use of a chaperone during an intimate examination, especially of female patients, is an essential step towards building a stronger, healthier and more transparent relationship between the general practitioner (doctor / medical professional) and their patients.

These are the top reasons that detail the importance of having a chaperone present during an intimate medical examination of a patient:
• Protection - The presence of a chaperone during an intimate medical examination adds a protective layer for the doctor against false allegations ofappropriate behavior / sexual harassment.
• Trust-building - Chaperones are a way of acknowledging the vulnerability that the patient may feel for their dignity during an intimate physical examination.
• Assistance - Chaperones are also trained to efficiently help the general practitioner for performing examinations.
• Assurance - Chaperones are intended to provide reassurance and emotional comfort to the patient.

The prospect of an intimate examination may result in anxiety and embarrassment to the patient. These types of examinations require immunity care and sensitivity towards the patient's feelings and emotional state.

Intimate studies mainly consist of examinations or tests being carried out on the breasts, genitals or the rectum. Apart from this, it also includes any examination procedure which requires the doctor to be close to the patient, such as:
• Eye examination in dim lighting
• Putting on the cuff for measuring the blood pressure
• Palpating the apex-beat, etc.

It becomes important to let the patient know beforehand in clear terms as to what the specific intimate examination will entail.

It is important for general practitioners and other medical professionals who require performing intimate physical examinations for patients to state their chaperoning policy clearly. It should be advertised adequately through informational leaflets for patients, websites and on notice boards inside the clinic or hospital. Ideally, it should be a routine practice for doctors to offer the services of a medical chaperone to every patient before starting the examination. Ensure enhanced levels of medical practice by having an effective chaperoning policy for your medical and healthcare center.



Source by David Rickersey

Cough with or without expectoration, chest pain, dyspnea and hemoptysis are the most frequent respiratory symptoms. Cough with expectoration is a predominant symptom in inflammatory lesions such as bronchitis and pneumonia or in irritative and allergic lesions of the respiratory tract. Pharyngitis, laryngitis, tracheitis and early stages of bronchitis give rise to cough without expectoration. In some infections like Bordetella pertussis and Klebsiella, paroxysms of cough are followed by a long inspiratory whoop caused by laryngeal spasm. Cough elicited by change of posture (Postural Cough) is characteristic of bronchiectasis, lung abscess, and bronchopleural fistula, "Bovine Cough" or "gander Cough" is the term used to denote cough devoid of its explosive (tussive) phase. This occurs in bilateral adductor paralysis of the vocal cords. In asthma cough and dyspnea tend to recur regularly at night. In left sided heart failure with pulmonary edema, cough occurs in the recumbent posture. Development of a mysterious and uncontrollable paroxysm of cough in an otherwise healthy person should suggest the possibility of an aspirated foreign body.

Cough is generally a protective reflex designed to keep the airway patent and clear the exudates. Sometimes irritant cough becomes troublesome, interfering with sleep and causing severe annoyance to the patient. Other unto-wards effects of cough include syncope (cough syncope), penumothorax, mediastinal and surgical emphysema and rib fractures (cough fracture). In children paroxysmal cough may lead to sub-conjuctival hemorrhage.

Sputum
The material expectorated from the respiratory tract is called sputum. In healthy individuals the secretion of the respiratory passes is less than 100ml in 24 hours. And this is just adequate to provide a protective lining, and there is no inspection. Exposure in excess of 10-25 ml of sputum in 24 hours, should raise the possibility of disease. Copious amounts in excess of 300 ml are seen in bronchiectasis and lung abscess. Character of the sputum often proposes the under pathology. Sputum is serosanguinous in pulmonary edema, mucoid and sticky in asthma and chronic bronchitis, thick and purulent in bronchiectasis and lung abscess, creamy yellow in pulmonary tuberculosis, blood stained in carcinoma, tuberculosis, bronchiectasis, mitrial stenosis and pulmonary infarction, rusty in pneumonia and black in coal worker's pneumoconiosis. Foul smelling sputum is suggestive of bronchiectasis, lung abscess or gangrene of the lung.

Presence of blood in the sputum is termed "hemoptysis". In true hemoptysis blood is derived from the airways or the lungs. The quantity of blood may be small as in mitral stenosis or massive as in cavitary pulmonary tuberculosis or neoplasm. Sometimes blood is derived from the upper respiratory passages or mouth and this is termed "spurious hemoptysis". Hemoptysis is a manifestation of serious underlying disease warranting full investigation. Although rare, massive hemoptysis results in considering loss of blood demanding emergency management in non-respiratory hypertension occurring in mitral stenosis, acute pulmonary edema, pulmonary infarction, trauma and hemorrhagic diseases. Rarely massive and fatal hemoptysis may develop when an aortic aneurysm erodes into the trachea or a bronchus. Spurious hemoptysis is commonly resented to by hysterical individuals to attract medical attention.

management of hemoptysis:
The patient should be hospitalized as an emergency and a rapid clinical examination is done to determine the cause. It is important to avoid percussion, which may worsen the hemoptysis. The patient is put to bed and sedated with diazepam 10mg administrated intramuscularly. Respiratory depressants such as morphine should be avoided since they impair anticipation. Blood loss and its effects are assessed by monitoring the volume of blood expectorated and the pulse, respiration and blood pressure. If the blood loss exceeds 200-300ml in 24 hours and it is persistent, blood transfusion is indicated.

In the majority of cases the undering cause can be made out by clinical examination and chest radiography. Specific treatment is instituted early (eg antituberculosis drugs in abscess, etc) in conditions where such treatment is available, majority of cases subside with rest, sedation, and blood transfusion. In conditions like pulmonary neoplasms, bleeding tend to persist, In such cases emergency bronchoscopy is done to locate the lesion and bleeding is located and the opposite lung is normal, induction of collapse by artificial pneumothorax serves to arrest bleeding promptly.

Digital clubbing (Hippocratic fingers)
This is caused by increase in the volume of soft tissue in and around the distal phalanges of the fingers and toes, especially the nail beds. This leads to increased curvature of the nails. Severity of clubbing varies and this has been graduated for clinical purposes.
Grade 1: Fluctuation of the nail can be elicited on the nail bed.
Grade 2: The normal angle between the nail and nail bed is lost.
Grade 3: The terminal portion of the phalanx and nail appears as a drumstick or a parrot beak.
Grade 4: In addition to digital clubbing, other regions show pulmonary osteo-arthropathy.

Causes
• Respiratory diseases- suppurative lesions like bronchiectasis, lung abscess, emphysema, and infected cysts; advanced tuberculosis with bronchiectatic changes, bronchoganic carcinoma, pneumoconiosis, fobrosing alveolitis, and pleural fibroma.
• Cardiovascular disorders-Cyanotic congenital heart diseases and infectious endocarditis.
• Alimentary disorders- Malabsorption states, ulcerative colitis, cirrhosis of the liver, hepatomas and amoebic live abscess.
• Miscellaneous groups- Clubbing may develop in thyroxicosis. At times it may occur nonpathologically in several members of a family (familial clubbing). Repeated trauma to the finger tips as occurring in carpenters and blacksmiths leads to occupational clubbing.



Source by Funom Makama

20 Then Job aose and (Z) tore his robe and shaved his head, and he fell to the ground and worshiped. 21 He said,
"(AA) Naked I came from my mother's womb,
And naked I shall return there.
The (AB) Lordgave and theLord has taken away.
Blessed be the name of the Lord. "
22 (AC) Throughout all this Job did not sin nor did he [m] blame God. (Job 1: 20-22, NASB)

As I sit here preparing for my sister's funeral I am reminded of a sermon preached at the funeral of another close relative. The preacher was also a relative and he also drew his topic from the above text. The topic was posed as a Question: Can God Trust You With Trouble? Out of all of the multitudinous sermons I've heard and preached, this one resonates through my soul fluently and incessantly. What I have learned is my faith is not substantiated by the fruit of my acquired moments. It is not justified by the bounty I have accumulated. My faith is validated and confirmed in the mid of trials and adversity. So today I pose the same question to you: Can God trust you with trouble?

When we look at Job in the whole of this passage we see a man that has lived his life in a way that was auspicious to God. In fact, God gives Job One of the most stellar reviews of anyone in the Bible. Let's look at how God describes Job in chapter 1.

8 And The Lord said to Satan, Have you considered my servant Job, that there is none like him on the earth, a blameless and upright man, one who [reverently] fears God and evil from and shuns evil [because it is wrong] ? (Job 1: 8, AMP)

God uses words like blameless and upright to describe Job. I want you to take notice of something extremely relevant to the apprehension of this message in full. At the very same time that God is giving Job this sparkling pure review, He is volunteering him for the spiritual and physical hail storm of the ages. "Have you considered my servant Job ..." God is saying to Satan if you are looking for someone to test, I volunteer Job. Understand this; If God volunteers you, you are definitely prepared for the moment.

Why would God offer up His best to end the worst? I will tell you why. In the legal world whenever there is a testimony given the opposition has the right to cross examine. In other words, the testimony is not allowed to simply stand on its merits, it must hold up under cross examination. The same is true with the Christian life. When you make your proclamation of faith you must understand that at some point your testimony will be cross examined by the vicissitudes of life. No matter how tight you walk the line. No matter how often you pray. Irregardless to the depth of your scriptural knowledge, you are going to have to end the cross examination of the enemy.

For all of Job's loyalty he reaped disaster. For all of His righteous living he encountered darkness. For every passionate prayer he prayed he was met with news of death and loss. As we move through the book of Job we learn that he did not understand his heartache. He could not lay a finger on its source; however, the one thing he knew is that he had not done anything to deserve it. Wait, maybe he did. When you live within the will of God and walk in your purpose, you put yourself dead in the crosshairs of the enemy. When you make your proclamation of God I live and for God I die, you become public enemy # 1.

The scriptures tell us that in all of this, Job did not sin. Not only did Job refrain from sinning, but he found a way to praise God in the middle of his pain. When I think about this, that same question keeps driving in the back of my mind: Can God trust you with trouble? When all of the eloquent words in the world can not rescue you, and the unadulterated force of the enemy is indebted against you and your loved ones, will God be able to trust you with that pain?

When you can not pray away the loneliness, will you still praise? When you can not speak away the darkness will you still show gratitude? When in return for your love your friends become your accusers, will you still proclaim the greatness of God? Oh, it's easy to shout his praise when all is well in your life, but when the phone rings only to bear more bad news, can you still sing of his worth?

Your legacy will be established through the way you engage your trials. Your greatness will be unveiled as you press inexporably toward your mark. Will your story reveal your valor or that you simply folded under the pressure? God wants to trust you with trouble. Well, can He?



Source by Dr.

A five paragraph essay is one with five paragraphs. This simply means that all the ideas of the chosen topic are organized to fit into just five paragraphs. It is made up of the introductory paragraph which contains a thesis statement.

This statement tells the general idea of ​​the essay. For example if I were to write a sample five paragraph essay on examination malpractice in medical studies, the introduction could have been "the problem of examination malpractice in medical studies is one that that has rejected all the strategies adopted to eradicate it. a lot of problems for medical studies in all aspects. "

The above introduction tells anyone what the essay is all about and at the same time hints on what to come in the following paragraphs: how examination malpractice has caused problems in Medical studies. The following paragraphs in a five paragraph essay then pick the points and then discuss them with supporting details, giving examples when necessary. Each of these paragraphs carries a topic sentence which is a summary of the idea in that particular paragraph.

For example, at the following paragraph I could say "children who involve themselves in examination malpractice grow up to be dangerous to the society" that is the topic sentence and it simply tell the reader what is to be discussed. I could go ahead and back it up by further explaining that "children who commit exam malpractice in school may cheat their way way through school and pass their examinations probably at the top of their class, but when the time comes for them to practice they will have nothing to offer. They end up getting jobs and getting sacked from their jobs.

The same applies for the other two paragraphs of a five paragraph essay. The details supporting the ideas should be linked and events should follow a logical order as seen above. The last stage of this sample five paragraph essay is the conclusion. The conclusion carries the thesis statement only paraphrased, and leaves the reader with something to remember. For example, the sample five paragraph essay could end in this manner "examination malpractice is not something anyone should involve in especially if that person wants to be great and well recognized in the future.



Source by John Halas

An ICC Reinforced Concrete Special Inspector is one who observes and reports the construction of residential or commercial buildings in accordance with the building codes of the jurisdiction and at the same time, the approved specifications and building plans (aka. Blueprints). Not just anyone can be part of this building inspection team. The individual must satisfy the requirements for certification mandated by the International Code Council ( ICC ). The building team found on any commercial or residential project is composed of different individuals (Architect, Engineer, Superintendent, Inspector, etc.) that perform different tasks but with one single objective, which is to uphold the Code of Ethics for the welfare and safety of the entire public. To attain an ICC Reinforced Concrete Certification does not require years of experience, as many believe.

Tips for passing the plan portion of the examination

The plan portion of the exam is not easy. Even if you have a strong knowledge of the code portion, most individuals fail to do a lack of understanding the rules of reading plans. So to increase your chances of passing the plan examination remember the following:

  • First, there are the 'Tools of the Trade' and in plan reading this holds true. Become familiar with the Registered Design Professional product contents, design requirements, orientation, schedules and specific directions that are found in any set of plans.
  • Second, remember one of the duties of a ICC Reinforced Concrete Special Inspector is to verify whether the contractor complies with the approved specifications for the building, needless to say, a candidate must familiarize itself with these items that are found in the plans, especially those that will be used on the structural reinforced concrete.
  • In connection to that, the examination is also an open book 60 question examination so candidates must have good navigational skills with the material such as the Concrete Manual and the Model Program for Special Inspection. To familiarize yourself with these reference requirements you can the ICC candidate bulletin.
  • Thirdly, be completely comfortable with the symbols and abbreviations used on the building plans because this is a very often missed step by individuals that test. And equip yourself with necessary instruments that will help you answer the questions more efficiently such as a sheet magnifying glass and a calculator.

In closing, learning how to budget your time for the given 3 h hours is not an easy task. There are 90 questions and the rule of thumb is to allocate 1 h hours for the open book code portion and 2 hours for interpreting the plans.

Best of luck on the test!



Source by Rodger Little

Being a Masters Business Administration (MBA) degree holder means you have a good education. It serves as your passport to land a better job that you are dreaming of. And one of the most important criteria to be considered to take an MBA program is through GMAT examination. It is the GMAT score that most of the MBA schools based their decision when accepting MBA students.

What is GMAT? GMAT stands for Graduate Management Admission Test. It is a computer based examination to assess the aptitude of the examinee for advanced study in business and management. This computer based test consists of three relevant areas. These are:

· AWA (Analytical Writing Assessment) - measures the analytical writing skills.

· Quantitative - measures the mathematical ability of the candidate in problem solving and data sufficiency.

· Verbal - tests the candidate's skills in sentence correction, critical reasoning and reading comprehension.

Taking GMAT examination is something that you should not be feared of for there are lots of preparations that you could choose to assure your GMAT passing grade. One very popular GMAT preparation is through online. Since GMAT is a computer based examination, it is very important to learn to be familiar on working with computers. Mostly, students are given GMAT study guides, practice exams and practice problems which will train them to be comfortable during the actual GMAT examination.

It has been proven that those individuals who make exceptional effort in learning about the test as well as mastering the concepts during the actual test gets a higher score compared to those who did not take any GMAT test preparation. Many surveys have shown that candidates who scored higher in the GMAT examination had enrolled into GMAT class, mostly GMAT online tutorial. With these evidences, we therefore conclude that GMAT examinee must prepare and enroll into online GMAT preparation to surely obtain a passing score.

What is the online class great advantage is its support that is always available. Since it is online, students can enjoy the effective and interactive GMAT preparation wherever in the world they are located. These online GMAT preparation service allows MBA candidates to study anytime anywhere at the convenience of their home, work and schools for as long as there is an internet access.

There is no denying that GMAT examination has a broad coverage of topics. This is one of the reasons why MBA aspirants kind of hesitant to take the exam. Fortunately, Internet is a big help on this problem. The online GMAT preparation service provides well organized relevant hundreds of pages and materials for GMAT examination, making it so easy for everybody to browse the area that needs help for improvement.

Preparation for any examination such as GMAT requires time. And since most of us are not geniuses, it is better to seek GMAT online class at least one month before the examination. It is also important to choose reliable GMAT online class to ensure getting the higher mark to enter top business school successfully.



Source by John Christianson

Since my area of expertise is in steam boilers, I will not discuss the hydrostatic test (HT) in unfired pressure vessel or power piping.

Hydrostatic test is a form of NDT (nondestructive test) and is the most preferred method to detect leakage and cracks in boiler under water pressure. Other NDT's such as magnetic particle test (MPT) or penetrant test (PT) are normally done to confirm the extent of damage after the leak point has been discovered. Only water pressure is allowed for HT. Steam or air is not allowed. "Hydro" itself means water. Water for all practical purposes is incompressible, and the pressure developed by the hydrostatic pump can be relieved instantaneously by releasing very small quantity of water, which would happen on leak occurring. Air is compressible and could be dangerous under pressure. The same goes with steam. Under steaming conditions, any failure of the structure would result in the boiler water flashing into steam, or steam leaks, subjected personnel to a danger of burn.

In Malaysia, the local jurisdiction, the Factories & Machinery Act 1970, stipulates that a boiler shall be hydrostatically tested every 7 years in which the authorized inspector will issue a Certificate of Hydrostatic Test in 6th Schedule, stating the date, test pressure, holding time, result, and authorized safe working pressure. The Certificate is valid for 7 years until the next HT. However, this is only a time frame, and your local jurisdictions may require different interval.

As a preparation for the HT, clean boiler waterside and fireside, nozzle flanges, manhole surfaces, and welding joints. Observe all safety precautions (procedures can be obtained from the eBook). The safety valve must be removed. However, if for some reason the safety valves cannot be removed, a test gag may be used following the safety valves' manufacturer guidelines. Remove electrical connections such as high pressure limit switches and sensors. Note that when a HT is being applied to a boiler, a calibrated test pressure gage must be connected to the hydrostatic pump. This precision test gage shall have the accuracy of 0.5%. Countercheck it with the calibrated pressure gage mounted on the boiler. Blind the nozzles by installing blind flanges or blind plates to fittings connection such as safety valves, main stop valves, feed nozzles, mombrey connections, and gage glasses. Rubber or normal gaskets will do just fine.

Fill up with treated water (at ambient temperature of 26oC) for the entire volume of the boiler and vent air from the system. Use water hose and fill up through one of the top nozzles until water overflows from the nozzle. Because the boiler may remain standby after the test, it is important that the water in the boiler is treated to prevent corrosion pitting. Consult your local chemical vendor for the treating method. The metal temperature for HT shall not be less than 60oF (16oC) and not more than 120oF (50oC). This is as per requirement in ASME Code AT-352. I have heard an engineer used boiler makeup water from the feed tank at 90oC for the HT just because he wanted to use the feed pump. Don't do this! If the temperature of the water is above the recommended temperature (exceeds 50oC), the boiler metal is subjected to brittle fracture. This brittle fracture is a phenomenon where rapid crack propagation occurs when temperature decreases under extreme stress condition. Moreover, there is a direct relationship between pressure and temperature. As the temperature drops, the pressure also drops, so you will notice a pressure drop from the pressure gage despite there is no leakage.

Make sure all air is removed before connecting the pressure hose from the hydrostatic-test pump to the boiler venting line. If the water overflows from the vent, shut off the valve tightly. Do not allow air pockets from forming inside the boiler. Do not use feed pump during HT although it is the fastest way to build up pressure. You have to standby an operator at the pump and he must be alert enough to stop the feed pump immediately once the test pressure is attained. Any negligence can be catastrophic, so why take chances? Hydrostatic-test pump or hand pump is preferred as the pressure and throughput can be easily controlled whereas the pumping rate of feed pump is high and could subject the boiler to overpressure if there is no precaution. Operate the hydrostatic pump and increase the pressure at the rate of 1 bar per minute and look at the gage carefully. Raise the pressure up to 1.5 times the maximum allowable working pressure (MWAP). MAWP is another term for design pressure. If the MAWP of the boiler is 2,000 kPa (20 bars), the required test pressure is 2,000 X 1.5 = 3,000 kPa (30 bars). Stop the pump operation at the test pressure and close the ball cock of the pump.

Wipe dry or spray with compressed air at all flanges and manholes to get rid of water residue. Hold the water under static pressure for 30 minutes. Visually examine all areas for leaks and cracks, giving particular attention to welds. I recommend you to not spend longer because besides exerting extra stress to the pressure parts, there shall be no leakage if there is no pressure drop within 30 minutes. In addition, 30 minutes is long enough to satisfy the code requirement. Some engineers maintained HT for only 15 to 20 minutes, which is OK IMO. If there is a leak, mark the location, snap photos showing water shooting out from the crack (important for documentation), and if no pressure drop, the HT is conducted successfully. Release the water via the bottom blowdown connection. As a standard procedure, after completion of any repair involving welding at pressure parts of the boiler, carry out a HT at 1.5 X MAWP again.

After the HT is successful, fill up the HT report, stating testing conditions, accessories, and procedures. Include pressure increase and holding time data in the report. This record must be kept for future reference.



Source by Hisham Hashim

Following IELTS Essay Topics appear in subsequent years of IELTS Academic Exams.

YEAR 2002

Topic No: 1. Soon people who cannot work with computers will be disadvantaged. To what extent do you agree or disagree with idea?

Topic No: 2. Nowadays, radio is being replaced by TV and the Internet. To what extent do you agree or disagree with idea?

Topic No: 3. These days, school introduce behavior of what is 'right' or 'wrong'. The responsibility is not only parents. To what extend do you agree or disagree?

YEAR 2003

Topic No: 1. Education is life long task. Do you agree or disagree? OR Education is sometime considered as something for the youth?

Topic No: 2. Young People are Encourage to travel or work for one year after high school and before university studies. Write advantages and disadvantages of this matter.

OR

Young People are Encourage to travel or work for one year after high school and before university studies. Do you think it's a good idea to do so?

Topic No: 3. Nowadays, people care about their appearance more than before. Do you agree or disagree?

Topic No: 4. Government should spend more money on education than on recreation and sports. Do you agree or disagree?

Topic No: 5. Technology has facilitated our lives so much and given us a lot of freedom. Some People, however, believe that it has caused more problems for us. What is your Opinion?

Topic No: 6. Shopping has become a favorite pastime among young people. Why do you think it's like that, and do you think they must be encouraged to do other things rather than shopping?

Topic No: 7. Nowdays, some people still prefer to ride bicycles. To what extend do you think this will help us in today's life?

Topic No: 8. Government has to place the same number of men and women in different fields of study universities. To what extend do you agree or disagree with this statement?

Topic No: 9. People's character is influenced by environment rather than genetics. Do you agree or disagree?

Topic No: 10. In 21st Century, there is no use to pay expenses for wild animal's protections. What's your idea about this matter?

OR

Wild animals have no place in 21st century and trying to preserve these animals is a waste of resources. Do what extend do you agree or disagree?

Topic No: 11. Is technology time consuming or does it save time?

Topic No: 12. The Elder people of over 50 years of age should be retired and replaced by the young. Do you agree or disagree?

Topic No: 13. Write whether you support that employees' salaries are not enough to make them happy. Benefit like health insurance etc. should be given to make them happier.

OR

In the world today, how can the companies keep their employees happy? Express you idea and bring reasons, for example how salary, health care and holiday can make employees happy.

Topic No: 14. People follow interests and have hobbies (e.g. collecting and making things) Do you think it is pointless? How can people learn from hobbies?

Topic No: 15. Smoking tobaccos like other dangerous drug should be made illegal. Agree or disagree?

For More Information on IELTS or Need IELTS materials than visit our website: http://www.ielts-studies.blogspot.com



Source by Julia Roberrt

It is commonly argued that final long summative exams are unfair. The usual view is that students could have a bad day, could be too frightened, and, if the examinations are only once a year, they provide little opportunity for recovery from a failure.

The answer to this I hope is obvious. If there is only one big examination -- maybe with only one essay in it, then there might be the some reason to dismiss summative assessment. But when there is more than one examination taken on at least two different days then low marks due to unfortunate circumstances will be mitigated. Chance is reduced further when there is a variety of examination formats, such as an essay paper, a short answer/structured paper, a multiple choice paper, and a practical examination, as well as a project or extended essay. One bad day is not going to greatly influence the results under such a system.

There are at least seven reasons why continuous assessment and modular examinations are inherently unfair and un-natural.

1. It can take over a year, maybe two years, for students to learn a subject.

This means over a year of constantly struggling both to understand the concepts and to learn fluently the terminology of the subject. Until the concepts and other related concepts are learned then the vocabulary is difficult to grasp. Until the vocabulary is grasped, then you have no way of handling the subject. Frequently in science concepts are interlinked and it is extremely difficult to put an iron box round one part and learn it without reference to other areas of science.

In my experience in my last two years of school physics I only begun to understand all the modules when I reached the final three months of the course. The module tests, every 6-8 weeks were helpful as a means of summarising the module. It would have been disastrous for me if the marks had been counted towards the final grade.

2. An integrated approach to the whole subject is far more important than learning every detail.

It is far better to have summative examinations after two or more years of work and to ask questions which require detailed knowledge across the whole subject. Continuing the physics example, I remember I failed the first nine out of ten modules, then went on to get a good grade in the examinations. Suddenly in the last module many pieces of the jigsaw began to fit together. I could not fully understand the early modules until I had done the later modules. The later modules could not have been attempted without the foundation of the earlier modules. In addition, the last module provided an integrating function that enhanced the details and the overall principles. In the end, it is this integration that has stayed with me and been useful, and it is best measured with a final summative examination.

3. Background reading kicks in best at the end of the course.

Something that even weak students can do is to read widely round a subject. In some school examinations in Britain 'unknown' information is presented and students are required to reason from first principles and apply what they know. Those who have read widely are at an advantage. This area of knowledge only really flourishes and shows itself in final examinations. Continuous assessment would have worked against this reading program in that the focus would have been only for the next test and not allowed time for the reading to have any effect.

4. Assessment scores while someone is in the process of learning are unfair.

There are some skills that take more than a year to learn. Students need time to learn. If a mark for coursework is included in the certification, then the lower competence of the past is rewarded. If a bad grade is given while still learning and is counted in the final award then this is unfair!

This is a true story from my secondary school teaching years. I was a new fourth year teacher of chemistry. A significant part of that year was spent explaining and practicing chemical formulae. Early in the year, a student, struggling, asked me if I could make the lessons simpler and break the material up into smaller easier parts. I replied that I could not. He need not worry though. Most pupils felt that way for at least six months. All he had to do was to keep trying the regular exercises and by the end of the school year he would have learned it.

Evidently he disliked the reply, because later the deputy head received a complaint from his parent. Had I really told a student it would take over six months to understand? Was it really true I could not make the subject any easier? Could I really not break it into smaller more understandable parts? As a young teacher, I remember taking a deep breath and boldly saying that I had made the remark: I stood by what I had said, and if he wanted confirmation, he only had to ask other science teachers.

The basics of chemical formulae and equations of reactions usually take a year to learn. There are no short cuts. Graded coursework would be wrong for such topics.

5. Some students are late starters; they need more time to assimilate knowledge than others do. Continuous assessment unfairly penalises late starters. It seems in Britain that this viewpoint has been largely ignored, especially in the development of half-A levels, where it is possible, though not obligatory, to do separate yearly examinations instead of doing the traditional 'A' level route of examinations after two years of study.

6. Focusing on grading in small steps takes away from the focus on learning.

I view with horror the American university system of small distinct modules and credits. Inevitably if a series of small grades are required this will devalue the subject because people will concentrate on the material and skills best suited to small tests. Postponing the real tests to formal examinations allows questions to be set that range across the whole subject and provides a measure of attainment at the point where a student has finished the studies.

7. The final level alone is important - not the coursework or intermediate test grades.



Source by Ivan Lowe