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Conventionally, examinations are regarded as a method of assessment of students who have gone through one level of education or another at the end of a term, semester or academic year.

However, among other disturbing developments which the industry is experiencing in the country nowadays, the incidence of examination malpractices in the Nigerian educational system is a cardinal one that is fast assuming a level of national and international embarrassment and dangerous dimension. It is a damaging epidemic, which if not cured soon, may destroy the nation's all-important education sector.

Examination malpractices are generally described as wrongdoings before, during or after examinations. And, without mincing words, these are having telling, negative effects on the nation's quality of education, just as many school leavers and graduates can no longer defend their certificates. As sinister as this endemic trend may appear, urgent measures need to be adopted for the cankerworm not to destroy the nation's future completely before long: it's too critical to be neglected. And, this is certainly, another cogent reason Nigeria needs moral renaissance and value regeneration in all aspects of its national life.

How does one describe what an examination malpractice is? According to Nwana (2000), examination malpractice is described as the "massive and unprecedented abuse of rules and regulations pertaining to internal and public examinations, beginning from the setting of such examinations through the taking of the examinations, their marking and grading, to the release of the results and the issuance of certificates."

In a similar vein, an academic has attempted another description of this unbridled phenomenon as "the act of omission or commission intended to make a student pass examination without relying absolutely on his/her independent ability or resources."

Certain research findings, conclusions, instructive and informed submissions of educationalists, academics, and other top stakeholders in this special sector of the nation's economy, however, have indicated that there had been one form of examination malpractice or the other before since in the early 1970s when "mass cheating was first perpetrated in WAEC" (West African Examinations Council).

Perhaps, this realisation jolted the examination body at the secondary school level to examine critically, various manifestations and extent of this retrogressive inclination. It reportedly, categorised the different forms of examination malpractice as including bringing in foreign materials to exam halls, irregular activities inside and outside examination halls, collusion, impersonation, leakage, mass cheating and insult/assault on supervisors during exams.

Other forms of exam malpractices identified by WAEC include assistance of candidates by invigilators to answer or have clue to difficult concepts, while some invigilators also go to the extent of answering some parts of the question for candidates, aside from other forms as "giraffing, contraband, bullet, super print, escort, missiles, and pregnant biros."

Nonetheless, what has happened to the survival of the country's education system from that time till this day? Unfortunately, in the continued 21st Century, examination malpractices of varying sorts, forms and manifestations, incontrovertibly, have worsened and become a national problem. The unbecoming tendency voraciously, continues to eat deep into the social fabric, right from primary schools to tertiary institutions of learning across the Nigerian Federation. It is no wonder then, that the Nigerian Union of Teachers (NUT), of recent, passionately asked the National Assembly to declare a state of emergency in the education sector so as to consciously revamp the lost glory of the once thriving industry.

While many stakeholders in the sector yet, believe that the prevalent malaise the education sector is not only perpetrated by the students alone, but also with the active connivance of other stakeholders, including teachers, security agents, exam invigilators, printers, supervisors, and the like, exam malpractices have equally been described by some in the know of the pervasiveness of the disheartening trend as "perennial and institutionalised multibillion Naira business", on which some depraved individuals, groups and institutions feed fat in the country as of now.

But then, a pertinent question any honest-minded Nigerians ought to ask themselves at this juncture is: How did Nigeria get to this decadent state in its education industry? Just as some major stakeholders and experts severally, have expressed heartfelt concerns about the continual damage continual exam malpractices are wreaking on the nation, a number of factors have been advanced for this ugly development.

Among other reasons adduced for the astronomical increase in exam malpractices in recent years are that in certain cases, "questions are not related to the syllabus", and consequently, examination malpractices are encouraged. It's also, been alleged that subject syllabuses are overloaded and difficult for exam candidates, so they often times find it difficult to cope. But, are these tenable excuses for dubious candidates and their depraved collaborators to engage in exam irregularities? It's simply indefensible for candidates to resort to exam irregularities. It's believed that with determined, conscious efforts at succeeding in any worthwhile endeavour, including examinations, "where there is a will, there is a way."

Many students' rising lack of seriousness and preparedness to take on their future, as many believe that most learners these days are "not ready to learn". For instance, it's been observed that in most public schools in particular, students are seen roaming the streets, while some seen with home video cassettes and compact disks (CDs/DVDs) and others playing football during school hours.

Similarly, in a desperate attempt at freezing parents financially, there have been established instances in which exam live questions are hurriedly solved by school managements in collusion with hired exam writers, impersonators oftentimes in "private schools' principals' offices" in order to please the parents to the detriment of their children's future prospect. And, these key school officers are expected to be role models, paragons of forthrightness, honesty, and integrity to these young ones, aren't they?

It's been established that this anomaly is usually perpetrated simultaneously, as students write theirs in exam halls, after which copies of such exam solutions are made and distributed to their students for mass copying, thereby turning their schools into sanctuaries of exam malpractices at worst. Reports say examiners are, indeed, getting wiser in tracking such anomalies in exam answer scripts in recent times.

Certain concerned educationists, among others reasons, equally, have hinged the widespread exam malpractices at different levels of education in the Nigerian system to sloppy emphasis on paper qualifications, low moral standards in schools, '419' syndrome, candidates' lack of confidence in themselves, fear of failure due to insufficient preparations, outright laziness, declining societal value system resulting in all sorts of get-rich-quick arrangements, gradual loss of values such as industry and enterprise in achieving any sustainable personal success as well poor professional standards and inappropriate curricular for training of teachers.

It's thus, no wonder that many parents and guardians who are beginning to understand the gimmicks of certain schools in "cooking" excellent results for their children and wards in order to please them. As a result of this widespread evil practice, many parents are becoming disillusioned by the day.

But, where have all these left the nation's educational system in recent times? The implications on the stakeholders in particular and the Nigerian society in general have been weighty and multifarious. One is the entrenched thinking that cheating in examinations pays, against the backdrop of the fact that societal values are fast on the decline.

However, many of these corrupt stakeholders who hitherto had been making much money from the irregularities, desperately, are finding it harder and more tasking than ever to disabuse the minds of these young ones, that examination frauds do not pay and will not take them far in life.

Exam irregularities, again, have instigated groundswell of criticisms from unusual quarters over the credibility of certificates award to school leavers and graduates from our institutions of higher learning. Stark incompetence, lack of basic employable and communication skills, declining national capacity-building, mindless official corruption in different sectors of the economy have become the obvious characteristics of the existing system.

A soul-searching question to ask all the stakeholders is this: Is it surprising in the least that many parents and guardians, irrespective of their financial capability, now seek admissions for their children and wards into tertiary institutions, whether registered or not, in neighbouring African countries as Benin Republic, Ghana and South Africa, not to mention those leaving Nigeria for the Americas, Europe and Asia to acquire education? Checks have revealed that a lot of them, including the nation's leadership seem to have lost confidence in the beleaguered education sector.

People who are still sceptical about the deepening adverse effects of exam malpractices in Nigerian schools, colleges and institutes need to listen to human capital recruitment professionals, HR experts and corporate trainers when they relate their frustrations over terrible experiences they do have with many job applicants' lack of employable cum simple communication skills, when faced with the task of selecting suitable hands from scores of job applicants for positions in both public and private sector organisations across the country.

Thus, "chances are that the average graduate we get today will not fit into any job because some of them cannot speak Basic English; some cannot write a simple letter. The quality is so bad that you spend a fortune training them without getting any result, because some things that should have happened earlier in their lives did not happen, Mrs. Ijeoma Rita Obu, a human capital development professional and CEO of Clement Ashley Consulting, once lamented in her chat with BusinessDay.

Many believe Nigeria cannot afford to overlook the obvious worsening, damaging effects of examination malpractices heartlessly crushing the soul of the education industry. Failure to address this growing negative drift sure would jeopardise any genuine efforts being intensified towards realising the needed capacity-building for the attainment of Vision 20-2020 economic objective.

Contrary to an express suggestion by the National Assembly that the Nigerian Universities should stop the conduct of post-Universities Matriculation Examinations (post-UME) tests being administered by these institutions, it is instructive that the concerned authorities need to improve on the internal mechanisms of the Joint Admissions and Matriculation Board (JAMB) and operations of related exam bodies in Nigeria. The lawmakers, nonetheless, need to realise that if such inadequacies, including examination malpractices and candidates' poor preparations for the challenges of tertiary education had not been identified by these academics in the nation's Ivory Tower earlier, the idea of post-UME would not have arisen in the first place. One believes these institutions, either directly or indirectly, ought to be in involved in determining the quality of candidates to be admitted for various academic programmes.

Therefore, to revive the fortune of the nation's education industry, proper planning, efficient administration, supervision, adequate funding for the provision of teaching and learning facilities, and motivation of teachers, instructors, and other key stakeholders via timely payments of their salaries, commissions, and stipends are quite consequential, since the success of any educational system largely, depends on these measures.

Though JAMB, WAEC, National Examinations Council (NECO), National Business and Technical Examinations Board (NABTEB) and National Teachers Institute (NTI), among others are reportedly making efforts at blacklisting and derecognising some schools and exam centres over confirmed irregularities for certain periods of time, appropriate governmental authorities also, must complement their efforts by applying diligently, the provision of Examination Malpractice Act 33 of 1999, stipulating punishment ranging from a fine of N50, 000 to N100, 000 and imprisonment for a term of 3-4 years with or without option of fine, in order to serve as a deterrent to other internal and external examination fraudsters who yearly feed fat on these illegalities.

Save for the rising low moral standards in many schools, colleges and other institutions of learning these days, aside from parents and other upright individuals in the society, teachers and instructors naturally, should serve as role models to today's students but tomorrow's leaders. Some morally bankrupt teachers, instructors, school principals and proprietors/proprietresses who have continued to connive with hired examination writers to turn their schools into havens for exam malpractices, while deceiving many parents with cooked 'fantastic' examination results of their children and wards, should desist from this shameful act. Any of them caught in the act should be prosecuted by the Independent Corrupt Practices and Other Related Offences commission (ICPC). What such ones do is nothing but economic sabotage, as they are destroying the nation's future today.

Government at all levels, as a matter of priority, should stop paying lip-service to the provision of required teaching and learning facilities in the schools, timely payment of staff salaries and fringe benefits in order to minimise corruption in the nation's educational system. The practice in which Government officials and politicians mindlessly, send their children and wards abroad on the bills of tax payers' money for better scholarship, just as Nigeria's school system rots away under the deadweight of avoidable problems will not help in restoring confidence in the system.

Therefore, all stakeholders within the nation's educational system should uphold the sanctity of examinations, so that quality may be restored to the failing system. Everyone is required to be committed to change and be part of this necessary change in which moral instruction, self-discipline could be employed to manage examination malpractices in Nigerian schools. Quality education remains an amazing instrument for sustainable national development.

Source by Olugbenga Kayode

As the aura of education keeps expanding its horizon throughout numerous dimensions; challenges and competitions from various fields also sprouted from one phase to more highly standards of education. Aspirants who want to excel and serve their country are very much on their verge to take a step that would mould them perfectly in facing any challenge that would prop out in escalating education aspects of the country as well as the entire world. In order to make these aspirants reach their targeted destinations, many good coaching centers and institutes are mushroomed with well equipped technology, tools, informations and guidance to sharpen their brains and qualify various examinations of the country.

Entrance examinations have become the most current buzz and the important part of career building in every student's life. As almost all the courses provided by the colleges of India today conduct tests to take admission in respective courses, therefore, students from all across the country apply for entrance examinations. Nowadays, qualifying examinations have proved to be a kind of license for students in pursuing their any chosen course or academic degree or service and in further proceeding with it. This concept is taken by the students as well justified which let them keep up their spirits to seek an admission for a coaching class based on the subject of their choice and interest.

There are various excellent coaching institutes in Delhi based upon various academic fields and respective services. Civil Service Examination/UPSC is regarded as the toughest examination in the country. It includes IAS, IPS, IRS, IFS etc; these are some of the premier services in India that offers a quality, attractive and challenging career for everyone with endless enthusiasm and reputation. Getting into one these services will make an individual handle all government affairs, the framing, implementation of policies at the central and district level and other important functioning of the country. To make aspirants crack this Civil Service Examination with confidence, coaching institutes like RAU'S, Vajiram, Chanakya etc are established with high standards of discipline, quality academic learning, good ambient and sound management.

Coming to the field of engineering, there is great improvement in the number of applications pouring in from entire parts of the nation for AIEEE, IIT JEE, GATE, etc. to get admitted into the top engineering colleges. This makes it clear that engineering discipline is not running out of track. It keeps on advancing with the proceeding years. To drive students success in pursuing this dynamic field, AIEEE coaching institutes, IIT-JEE coaching institutes and GATE coaching institutes are making their best way to provide guidance, strategic study plan, relevant study materials, perfect information with solved papers and conduct mock tests to make them able to face any exam pattern with esteem. Some distinguished AIEEE coaching institutes in Delhi are: - Core Academy, FIIT-JEE Limited, Brilliant Tutorials, and Career Point etc. Similarly if we seek for apt IIT JEE coaching institutes in Delhi: we will stumble upon names such as: - Aakash, Bansal Classes, FIITJEE Limited etc. Some of the names which stands out from the rest when it comes to GATE coaching institutes are: MADE EASY DELHI, Dronacharya (for Electronics and Electrical), GATE Forum Delhi (for test series)

For students who have utmost interest in MBA also have the golden chances in getting through it by clearing those exams like CAT, XAT, and MAT etc. Here, Verbal Ability, Data Interpretation & Logical Reasoning and Quantitative Ability are the three basic segments that applied in these examinations to scrutinize only the eligible candidates. Good coaching centers in Delhi regarding MBA are Career Makers, Genesis, Career school, TIME, Trump and Gates, etc.

There are also excellent coaching centers for exams like NET, JRF and SLET. Some well known coaching institutes for such exams are Gyanbindu academy, VPM Classes, Grass root Academy etc.

It is always better do a bit of intricate research on the internet pertaining to its performance, resources, admission fees and faculties before you select any suitable coaching institute. These institutes are offering tutorial classes that will help such aspiring individuals amazingly to fulfill their lives goal based on educational qualification with hope and confidence.

Source by Jack White Sam

On the way to the CPA Review Center

I have to walk fast, and find a passenger bus that can lead me to the central part of the city where the CPA (Certified Public Accountants) Review Center is. It is a Saturday, and nearing 12 noon. I hope the traffic is not horrible so I can reach the review center before noon break. I would have been there earlier, had I not been anywhere else, first. But personal things are a priority, so there I was praying mightily that I can manage to make it on time.

The CPA Review

As a professor in one of the local colleges in the city, I often wondered how our students were faring in the CPA pre-board exams. These come two times - the first pre-board and the second pre-board examination. After that, would be the CPA Board Examination that takes place every October and May of the year. As most Accountants would want to believe, the upshot of the pre-board examination would clearly show on how you will get along in the CPA board exams. Hence, the need for the school to find out, how many of their kids would most likely make it to the CPA board!

It was about noon break when I reached the CPA Review Center that is still headed by Accounting book author, Conrado Valix. He was one of my reviewers when I took the board exams ages ago. Now, I still see him roaming around the site with vitality and aplomb. It is probably having all the kids around that is making him younger - looking far younger than I even! He saw me enter the registrar's office and he came in to check what I needed. Looking at him, I still saw the same likable traits, admired by all Accountants, that are worth their salt. He is still amiable as ever, and with the same swagger that was his trademark from way back when. When he saw me, his first remark was, "Where are the top students of your school? How come I don't see them anywhere?" He then laughs affably and wiggled away from out of the office, still smirking!

The First Pre-Board Result

The result of the pre-board was alright. Around close to 45% of our school's students passed. Still, looking on the grade sheet, I realized that closed to 40% of our students, remained hanging by the thread. They need from 5% to a mere 0.5% to make it to the passers list. Looking at the names of passers, I noticed that there were a few people, who I thought would make a good showing on the pre-board exams. On the other hand, the list of those who didn't make it, were some of our strongest bets that we felt would pass the exams with flying colors.

This just goes to prove, the old axiom in the Accountancy profession, that you have to be serious in your review to make it through these exams. Sheer intelligence alone would not be enough to help you pull it through. If you need to have that CPA tag attach to your name, it is necessary that you study mightily and wholeheartedly to help you survive the ordeal.

The bus ride back home seemed faster than the ride I had earlier that morning. Holding the test result in my hand, and reading through the list again - made me think that I will not release the results as yet. I will simply name those who made it through the top 100 ranking status of the review center. Per my count, there were about five (5) of them. I will wait for the others to survive till the following pre-board exam, which is otherwise known as, the second pre-board. I know the rest can still pull through, and I would be willing to wait it out till they have drawn all the bolts and knots to come up with the final tally!


The CPA board exam is the last battle that any accountancy graduate would have to take. It takes five (5) years of college studies and another six (6) months of intensive review before one can take the said examination. It is every accountant's dream to have the CPA tag attach to his name. However, the road to having that tag is long and arduous. One has still to survive the two (2) Pre-Board Exams given by the review centers, before going through the ordeal of having a shot on the CPA board exams!

Source by Consolacion S Miravite

Server + certification is issued from comp TIA and this certification will suit best to the candidates who have work experience in server environment for at least 18 to 24 months. In case if a candidate does not have work experience in the required field, then examination has to be taken and it is recommended that the candidate has to be competent in installations, configurations, maintenance, troubleshooting, server technology, disaster as well as upgrading recovery .

In order to obtain this server + certification, candidate has to take up one examination and also a minimum of 615scaled points has to be scored in order to pass the examination. Candidate can take this certification examination in any of the Pearson VUE test center or Thompson promotional testing center.

Server + certification examination:

Candidate needs to pass in an exam SK0-002 server + and this examination will be classified in to 8 subjects and they are as follows:

1) Installation
2) General server hardware
3) Configuration
4) Upgrading
5) Environment
6) Maintenance
7) Troubleshoot
8) Disaster recovery.

All these examinations have different levels of importance as well as different weight in the exam.
Job roles for server + certified candidates:

Successful certified server + candidates will get placed in various fields and the following are the possible job roles to the candidates.

1) System administration
2) Server administration
3) IT technician

Benefits for server + certification:

Typically, people will think about the career opportunities, benefits and demand over the field before choosing up any course and even these happens in university degrees as well. The following are the benefits of server + certification and they are:

1) This server + certification can be said as vendor neutral certification and it validates the skills that are required on internet specific technology as well as in the web servers.
2) Candidates holding their server + certification will be given first preference in employee point of view and also in promotion point of view.
3) Server + certification will be very helpful to the candidates who have knowledge on web servers as well as internet technologies in order to get recognition from an organization.
4) Generally, server + certified candidates are hired quickly and also they are paid with more salary.

Source by Alina Michael

NISM-Series-V A: Mutual Fund Distributors Certification Examination is one of the important exams, conducted by NISM (National Institute of Securities Market). It's very helpful module for the peoples, those are willing to work in the field of mutual funds. The aim of this certification is to enhance the quality of sales, distribution and related support services in the mutual fund industry.

To clear NISM Series V A: M. F. D. Certification Exam, candidate should have knowledge of following things:

  1. Concept and role : Before attempting NISM V-A Certification Exam, you should have a clear picture of MF in your mind. In other words, we can say that how it works. So just try to know the concept and role model of a mutual fund. In this section, you have to learn lot of things like Advantages and limitations of a mutual fund, Exchange Traded Funds (ETF), Investment objectives, Fund running expenses and some of the others.
  2. Fund Structure and Constituents: In this, you need to learn the things about the Structure of MF in India and related regulations, Role of the sponsor and Role of other fund constituents and related regulations.
  3. Legal and Regulatory Environment: Know the Role and functions of SEBI (Securities and Exchange Board of India) in regulating MF and take a look on investment restrictions and related regulations.

There are some other important sections in this module as: Offer Document, Fund Distribution and Sales Practices, Accounting, Valuation and Taxation, Investor Services, Risk, Return and Performance of Funds, Scheme Selection, Selecting the Right Investment products for Investors, Helping Investors with Financial Planning and Recommending Model Portfolios and Financial Plans.

Before attempting NISM Series V A Certification exam, you should have knowledge of above listed things. Now collect relevant information from your books or try to find out the things online. In modern age, it's very easy to find out any of the informations online easily and quickly. You may also collect some information from the site of NISM.

So learning all of the above listed things will help you in clearing NISM-Series-V A: M. F. D. Certification Examination easily with high marks.

Other thing, you can find out the model paper of NISM series-V-A online for preparation. Take a mock test or practice test online for the module of NISM Series V A: Mutual Fund Distributors Certification Exam. Now you can also test yourself by giving NISM series V A mock test online.

Source by Suman Dhankhar

Passing the ICC (S1) Bolting Plan exam, like any other exam, can be assured if you put in the necessary effort. There is no denying the fact that you need to diligently study the required plans (blueprints) if you want to pass the exam. Apart from that, it will surely help if you have spent some time gathering field experience doing the job. Yes, the ICC allows those without experience to take it, but having seen the job live will increase your chances because you will be able to understand the plans when you read them. Still, the best way even for those without job experience is to prepare for the exam by diligently studying the subject with a mentor.

The ICC has recommended a number of references that you can read and study to help you in your preparation for the open book code segment. These references include the 2009 International Building Code, the Model Program for Special Inspection and the AISC Steel Construction Manual, 13thEdition. When a question comes up during the open book exam, and you have built speed in finding the answers from these sources, it will create more time for you on the plan interpretation portion of exam. You are also advised to take courses or seminars that are conducted purposely to help you with obtain a passing mark. Of course you can review the subjects by yourself, but there is added benefit in joining a class. These classes should be well organized and cover all the areas that will be given in the exam. You may not be able to do that by yourself. In addition, these classes should give emphasis on subjects which are weightier in terms of their percentage of the total score.

More importantly, these training courses should also enhance your knowledge of the technical aspects and the duties and responsibilities of an ICC (S1) Bolting Inspector. Admittedly, a lot of expensive inspection courses out there do not even cover structural plan reading, steel frame observation, inspection reports, typical inspection practices, material sampling, testing and verification, etc.

One last thing in closing is be at the exam site at least 30 minutes before the start. There will be instructions given before the start that will impact your total score. This is true when you are taking the computer-based exam. You need to complete the tutorial before starting the exam where you are instructed how to correctly input your answers. It will not help your nerves if you come in rushing. If your nerves are calm, your brain will be able to function in its maximum capacity. Remember, experts also advise that if you don't know the exact answer, make a guess, and don't leave the question unanswered. Who knows? Your guess may turn out right.

Good luck on the exam...

Source by Rodger Little

Internal assessment versus external assessment

The external examination or external assessment serves the purpose of providing information about students, information that may be used by teachers and others to find the suitability of students for a subsequent course of higher education or job in an establishment. So teachers are also too impressed with the suitability of exam results. They are tempted to distort teaching in order to obtain satisfying results in the examinations without caring whether students have gained knowledge or not.. Experts feel that in universities there is no system of education but system of examination. University examinations whether at the end of the year or at the end of the semester asses the abilities to recall the facts, recall of principles, use of numerical data, construction of hypotheses, assessment of hypotheses, design of experiments. But they do not measure the students' abilities to the use of single technique they have studied.

Students appearing for entrance tests for higher education are tested for their comprehensive ability. Students studying for end exams or external exams cannot get through in these entrance tests.

Some of the possible outcomes of learning should be knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, evaluation, drawing and sketching skills, ability to handle instruments, communication skills (skills in writing, talking), social skills (team work and leadership), personal interest (regularity, hard work, inventiveness, originality, initiative), positive and scientific attitude, appreciation and creativity.

These qualities cannot be attained by the end examinations or external examinations. So there is a need for continuous internal assessment. Assessment is taken to mean the terminal decision and grading, while evaluation is a constant probing for the best way to move forward.

Basic principles

Internal assessment is a continuous, periodic and internal process. This means that assessment is done in relation to certain abilities and skills in certain subject areas periodically and continuously. This has to be planned at the time of curriculum development, syllabus interpretation and clarifying objectives of learning. This is known as internal, because evaluation is done by teacher in the institute and no external agency comes in. It does not necessarily replace end examination. The end examination is to be taken as part of the internal assessment. Also it does not mean only a few mid term examinations in place of final examinations and demands that the outcomes of learning a particular subject must be spelt out perfectly. Internal assessment should test those skills and abilities which cannot be tested through a written examination at the end of course.

Proper importance should be given to internal assessment and end examinations. Internal assessment and external end university examinations marks or grades must be shown separately in mark sheets. Teachers should do internal assessment of students, by taking into account all aspects of students' work such as assignments, tutorials, practical, seminar contributions, project works, as well as periodical tests of achievement.

Students may be tested by questions like short quizzes, objective type questions, short answer essay type, long answer essay type, structured essay type, problem solving type, performance type and assignments, tutorials, projects.

The success of a system of internal assessment will largely depend on teachers; their understanding, training, potential, honesty, unbiased attitude and above all the "professionalism" they bring to their work of teaching-learning-testing.

Source by Asokan Thiyagarajan

What is a Chaperone for General Practitioners?

A chaperone in medical practice, is defined as an appropriately-trained independent person who is responsible for observing the examinations and procedures performed by the doctor or medical professional. Their main job is to assist in strengthening the relationship between the doctor and the patient and enhancing the standards of conventional medical practice.

Need for Chaperones in Medical Profession

Medical examinations are becoming increasingly challenging for the doctors and the patients. The main reasons for this are the detailed doctor-patient discussions, accompanied by increasing the autonomy of the patient and their right to making decisions independently for medical and surgical treatment. This is noticeably affecting the traditional doctor-patient relationship that we know of.

These reasons have made maintaining a transparent and open relationship between the doctor and their patients and is increasingly difficult. The boundaries that govern an ideal and healthy doctor-patient relationships are becoming blurred and making consultation is more challenging for the doctors.
A chaperone works excellently to make the doctor-patient relationship stronger and more trustful. However, reports show a surprising lack of awareness among the medical community.

According to a survey published by BMJ (2015), shows that:
• Around 37% of general practitioners admitted to having a chaperone policy.
• While 68% of male general practitioners offered a chaperone when performing an intimate physical examination, only 5% of female general practitioners admitted to it.
• Only 54% of male and around 2% of female general practitioners admitted to having a chaperone when performing examinations.
• Over 70% of female and 8% of male general practitioners admitted they never use a chaperone when conducting an intimate examination of patients.

When the general practitioners did use a chaperone, the sources were varied, such as:
• 22% of interviewed general practitioners used general practice registrars or students as chaperones.
• 47% used a family member or a person accompanying the patient as chaperones.
• 43% of general practitioners used non-clinical practice staff as chaperones.
• 78% of general practitioners usually used qualified female nurses as chaperones.

The main reasons that the general practitioners cave for not using a licensed and qualified professional medical chaperone for chaperoning in general practice are:
• Availability
• Confidentiality
• Time constraints
• Doctor-Patient relationship

Importance of Chaperoning in General Medical Practice

The use of a chaperone during an intimate examination, especially of female patients, is an essential step towards building a stronger, healthier and more transparent relationship between the general practitioner (doctor / medical professional) and their patients.

These are the top reasons that detail the importance of having a chaperone present during an intimate medical examination of a patient:
• Protection - The presence of a chaperone during an intimate medical examination adds a protective layer for the doctor against false allegations ofappropriate behavior / sexual harassment.
• Trust-building - Chaperones are a way of acknowledging the vulnerability that the patient may feel for their dignity during an intimate physical examination.
• Assistance - Chaperones are also trained to efficiently help the general practitioner for performing examinations.
• Assurance - Chaperones are intended to provide reassurance and emotional comfort to the patient.

The prospect of an intimate examination may result in anxiety and embarrassment to the patient. These types of examinations require immunity care and sensitivity towards the patient's feelings and emotional state.

Intimate studies mainly consist of examinations or tests being carried out on the breasts, genitals or the rectum. Apart from this, it also includes any examination procedure which requires the doctor to be close to the patient, such as:
• Eye examination in dim lighting
• Putting on the cuff for measuring the blood pressure
• Palpating the apex-beat, etc.

It becomes important to let the patient know beforehand in clear terms as to what the specific intimate examination will entail.

It is important for general practitioners and other medical professionals who require performing intimate physical examinations for patients to state their chaperoning policy clearly. It should be advertised adequately through informational leaflets for patients, websites and on notice boards inside the clinic or hospital. Ideally, it should be a routine practice for doctors to offer the services of a medical chaperone to every patient before starting the examination. Ensure enhanced levels of medical practice by having an effective chaperoning policy for your medical and healthcare center.

Source by David Rickersey

Cough with or without expectoration, chest pain, dyspnea and hemoptysis are the most frequent respiratory symptoms. Cough with expectoration is a predominant symptom in inflammatory lesions such as bronchitis and pneumonia or in irritative and allergic lesions of the respiratory tract. Pharyngitis, laryngitis, tracheitis and early stages of bronchitis give rise to cough without expectoration. In some infections like Bordetella pertussis and Klebsiella, paroxysms of cough are followed by a long inspiratory whoop caused by laryngeal spasm. Cough elicited by change of posture (Postural Cough) is characteristic of bronchiectasis, lung abscess, and bronchopleural fistula, "Bovine Cough" or "gander Cough" is the term used to denote cough devoid of its explosive (tussive) phase. This occurs in bilateral adductor paralysis of the vocal cords. In asthma cough and dyspnea tend to recur regularly at night. In left sided heart failure with pulmonary edema, cough occurs in the recumbent posture. Development of a mysterious and uncontrollable paroxysm of cough in an otherwise healthy person should suggest the possibility of an aspirated foreign body.

Cough is generally a protective reflex designed to keep the airway patent and clear the exudates. Sometimes irritant cough becomes troublesome, interfering with sleep and causing severe annoyance to the patient. Other unto-wards effects of cough include syncope (cough syncope), penumothorax, mediastinal and surgical emphysema and rib fractures (cough fracture). In children paroxysmal cough may lead to sub-conjuctival hemorrhage.

The material expectorated from the respiratory tract is called sputum. In healthy individuals the secretion of the respiratory passes is less than 100ml in 24 hours. And this is just adequate to provide a protective lining, and there is no inspection. Exposure in excess of 10-25 ml of sputum in 24 hours, should raise the possibility of disease. Copious amounts in excess of 300 ml are seen in bronchiectasis and lung abscess. Character of the sputum often proposes the under pathology. Sputum is serosanguinous in pulmonary edema, mucoid and sticky in asthma and chronic bronchitis, thick and purulent in bronchiectasis and lung abscess, creamy yellow in pulmonary tuberculosis, blood stained in carcinoma, tuberculosis, bronchiectasis, mitrial stenosis and pulmonary infarction, rusty in pneumonia and black in coal worker's pneumoconiosis. Foul smelling sputum is suggestive of bronchiectasis, lung abscess or gangrene of the lung.

Presence of blood in the sputum is termed "hemoptysis". In true hemoptysis blood is derived from the airways or the lungs. The quantity of blood may be small as in mitral stenosis or massive as in cavitary pulmonary tuberculosis or neoplasm. Sometimes blood is derived from the upper respiratory passages or mouth and this is termed "spurious hemoptysis". Hemoptysis is a manifestation of serious underlying disease warranting full investigation. Although rare, massive hemoptysis results in considering loss of blood demanding emergency management in non-respiratory hypertension occurring in mitral stenosis, acute pulmonary edema, pulmonary infarction, trauma and hemorrhagic diseases. Rarely massive and fatal hemoptysis may develop when an aortic aneurysm erodes into the trachea or a bronchus. Spurious hemoptysis is commonly resented to by hysterical individuals to attract medical attention.

management of hemoptysis:
The patient should be hospitalized as an emergency and a rapid clinical examination is done to determine the cause. It is important to avoid percussion, which may worsen the hemoptysis. The patient is put to bed and sedated with diazepam 10mg administrated intramuscularly. Respiratory depressants such as morphine should be avoided since they impair anticipation. Blood loss and its effects are assessed by monitoring the volume of blood expectorated and the pulse, respiration and blood pressure. If the blood loss exceeds 200-300ml in 24 hours and it is persistent, blood transfusion is indicated.

In the majority of cases the undering cause can be made out by clinical examination and chest radiography. Specific treatment is instituted early (eg antituberculosis drugs in abscess, etc) in conditions where such treatment is available, majority of cases subside with rest, sedation, and blood transfusion. In conditions like pulmonary neoplasms, bleeding tend to persist, In such cases emergency bronchoscopy is done to locate the lesion and bleeding is located and the opposite lung is normal, induction of collapse by artificial pneumothorax serves to arrest bleeding promptly.

Digital clubbing (Hippocratic fingers)
This is caused by increase in the volume of soft tissue in and around the distal phalanges of the fingers and toes, especially the nail beds. This leads to increased curvature of the nails. Severity of clubbing varies and this has been graduated for clinical purposes.
Grade 1: Fluctuation of the nail can be elicited on the nail bed.
Grade 2: The normal angle between the nail and nail bed is lost.
Grade 3: The terminal portion of the phalanx and nail appears as a drumstick or a parrot beak.
Grade 4: In addition to digital clubbing, other regions show pulmonary osteo-arthropathy.

• Respiratory diseases- suppurative lesions like bronchiectasis, lung abscess, emphysema, and infected cysts; advanced tuberculosis with bronchiectatic changes, bronchoganic carcinoma, pneumoconiosis, fobrosing alveolitis, and pleural fibroma.
• Cardiovascular disorders-Cyanotic congenital heart diseases and infectious endocarditis.
• Alimentary disorders- Malabsorption states, ulcerative colitis, cirrhosis of the liver, hepatomas and amoebic live abscess.
• Miscellaneous groups- Clubbing may develop in thyroxicosis. At times it may occur nonpathologically in several members of a family (familial clubbing). Repeated trauma to the finger tips as occurring in carpenters and blacksmiths leads to occupational clubbing.

Source by Funom Makama

20 Then Job aose and (Z) tore his robe and shaved his head, and he fell to the ground and worshiped. 21 He said,
"(AA) Naked I came from my mother's womb,
And naked I shall return there.
The (AB) Lordgave and theLord has taken away.
Blessed be the name of the Lord. "
22 (AC) Throughout all this Job did not sin nor did he [m] blame God. (Job 1: 20-22, NASB)

As I sit here preparing for my sister's funeral I am reminded of a sermon preached at the funeral of another close relative. The preacher was also a relative and he also drew his topic from the above text. The topic was posed as a Question: Can God Trust You With Trouble? Out of all of the multitudinous sermons I've heard and preached, this one resonates through my soul fluently and incessantly. What I have learned is my faith is not substantiated by the fruit of my acquired moments. It is not justified by the bounty I have accumulated. My faith is validated and confirmed in the mid of trials and adversity. So today I pose the same question to you: Can God trust you with trouble?

When we look at Job in the whole of this passage we see a man that has lived his life in a way that was auspicious to God. In fact, God gives Job One of the most stellar reviews of anyone in the Bible. Let's look at how God describes Job in chapter 1.

8 And The Lord said to Satan, Have you considered my servant Job, that there is none like him on the earth, a blameless and upright man, one who [reverently] fears God and evil from and shuns evil [because it is wrong] ? (Job 1: 8, AMP)

God uses words like blameless and upright to describe Job. I want you to take notice of something extremely relevant to the apprehension of this message in full. At the very same time that God is giving Job this sparkling pure review, He is volunteering him for the spiritual and physical hail storm of the ages. "Have you considered my servant Job ..." God is saying to Satan if you are looking for someone to test, I volunteer Job. Understand this; If God volunteers you, you are definitely prepared for the moment.

Why would God offer up His best to end the worst? I will tell you why. In the legal world whenever there is a testimony given the opposition has the right to cross examine. In other words, the testimony is not allowed to simply stand on its merits, it must hold up under cross examination. The same is true with the Christian life. When you make your proclamation of faith you must understand that at some point your testimony will be cross examined by the vicissitudes of life. No matter how tight you walk the line. No matter how often you pray. Irregardless to the depth of your scriptural knowledge, you are going to have to end the cross examination of the enemy.

For all of Job's loyalty he reaped disaster. For all of His righteous living he encountered darkness. For every passionate prayer he prayed he was met with news of death and loss. As we move through the book of Job we learn that he did not understand his heartache. He could not lay a finger on its source; however, the one thing he knew is that he had not done anything to deserve it. Wait, maybe he did. When you live within the will of God and walk in your purpose, you put yourself dead in the crosshairs of the enemy. When you make your proclamation of God I live and for God I die, you become public enemy # 1.

The scriptures tell us that in all of this, Job did not sin. Not only did Job refrain from sinning, but he found a way to praise God in the middle of his pain. When I think about this, that same question keeps driving in the back of my mind: Can God trust you with trouble? When all of the eloquent words in the world can not rescue you, and the unadulterated force of the enemy is indebted against you and your loved ones, will God be able to trust you with that pain?

When you can not pray away the loneliness, will you still praise? When you can not speak away the darkness will you still show gratitude? When in return for your love your friends become your accusers, will you still proclaim the greatness of God? Oh, it's easy to shout his praise when all is well in your life, but when the phone rings only to bear more bad news, can you still sing of his worth?

Your legacy will be established through the way you engage your trials. Your greatness will be unveiled as you press inexporably toward your mark. Will your story reveal your valor or that you simply folded under the pressure? God wants to trust you with trouble. Well, can He?

Source by Dr.